Every gardener is interested in growing a high-quality and environmentally safe crop from cultivated plants, such as tomatoes. In view of this, you need to stock up with everything necessary for fertilizing the beds in advance, during the so-called off-season period. This article will cover a variety of different means used for micronutrient fertilizers, fertilizing and treating tomatoes for diseases and pests.
In order to plant healthy and strong seedlings of tomatoes, it is necessary to carry out disinfection and saturation of the seeds with useful substances. You can soak tomato seeds in Épinay, Zircon or Humate.
The brand name of the agent of vegetable origin, which is a natural adaptogen and a growth stimulator of tomatoes, is called Appin. Due to its effect, tomatoes are easier to adapt to changes in humidity, temperature, and lack of light, as well as to over-wetting and drought.
If you treat the tomato seeds with Epin's solution, the seedlings will appear faster. In addition, microfertilizer increases the resistance of tomato sprouts to various diseases.
Important! Tomato seed processing should be carried out at temperatures above 20 ° C, otherwise the effectiveness of the product will decrease.
As a rule, Epin is commercially available in small packages - 1 ml. Stored means for fertilizing tomatoes in the cold and in the dark, for example, in the refrigerator. So, after Epin is removed from the refrigerator, it must be heated at room temperature for half an hour or in the hands to hold for 2-3 minutes. So, the sediment will dissolve and the liquid for processing tomatoes will become transparent. Shake the contents in the fertilizer ampoule and add 2 drops of the product to 0.5 cups of water. This solution must be processed tomato seeds.
Attention! It is possible to carry out the processing of tomato seeds by Appin only after their preliminary disinfection.
Soaking time 12-24 hours. It is important to periodically stir the tomato seeds. Then the solution should be drained, and the treated planting material should be dried and put on germination or sown.
Use of succinic acid
Succinic acid is part of many growth-stimulating drugs. They are used for spraying tomato seedlings and adult plants. The beneficial effects of succinic acid are manifested in an increase in tomato flowering and yield.
To increase the amount of tomato ovary will help processing fertilizer, diluted in a ratio of 1 g per bucket of water. This solution should be sprayed with each bush tomato. Repeat the procedure should be carried out every 7-10 days during the period of the most active bud formation on tomato bushes. Enough three treatments.
Spraying tomatoes with fertilizer containing succinic acid will also improve the resistance of the plant to bacteria, diseases and insects. The quality and quantity of fruits depends largely on the formation of chlorophyll in tomato leaves. It neutralizes the action of nitric acid, if it is too much.
Succinic acid does not have a negative impact on the body, and therefore is a safe form of fertilizing tomatoes. In addition, an overdose of the drug is not terrible, as the bushes tomato absorb only the amount that they need. And yet, precautionary measures are important because, once in the eye or stomach, succinic acid provokes inflammatory processes.
Instructions for use
To make the necessary fertilizer from succinic acid for tomatoes, you should follow the instructions that you can read in this section. This tomato fertilizer is sold in the form of crystalline powder or tablets. If you purchased succinic acid tablets, then before preparing a solution for processing tomatoes, they must be crushed. So, for the preparation of fertilizers for tomatoes, you need water and acid. There are 2 ways to prepare a solution:
- 1 g of water is 1 g of fertilizer for tomatoes, and the concentration of the powder can be increased or decreased, depending on the intensity of the impact on the tomatoes.
- To prepare a less concentrated solution, 1% succinic acid should be made, and then dilute it with water in the desired proportion.
Processing tomatoes green paint
Another tool widely used for fertilizing and processing tomatoes is brilliant green. It has a tomato and soil antiseptic effect on bushes, due to the content of copper in it.
Processing tomatoes with brilliant green may include smearing the wounds of tomatoes, which are formed randomly or during small pruning. Dissolving 40 drops of zelenka in a bucket of water and spraying tomato bushes, you can save them from phytophthora.
In order not to measure off the brilliant green water droplets each time you need to fertilize the tomatoes, you can dilute the vial in a liter of water, and then add some (by eye) to the water for spraying or fertilizing. If you water the beds of tomatoes with a weak solution of green stuff, then you can get rid of slugs.
Ammonia, as a means for processing tomatoes
In liquid ammonia contains 82% of nitrogen and there is no ballast substances, which is why the solution from it is actively used in the fertilizer of plants, including tomatoes. In essence, ammonia is an aqueous solution of ammonia.
Nitrogen is very important for the full growth and development of tomatoes is about the same as for people bread. It is worth noting that all plants eagerly absorb nitrates, but this does not apply to ammonia. This means that it is impossible to overfeed tomatoes or other crops with ammonia. For the formation of nitrates from organic matter, which is usually not in the garden in the right quantity, an active soil biocenosis is necessary, while there is enough air for the splitting of ammonia. This means that ammonia is more useful as a fertilizer for tomatoes and other cultivated plants than organic matter.
The number of microorganisms on an intensively used piece of land is reduced, due to which the soil becomes less fertile. Soil reclamation or fertilization can be carried out using different methods. The most famous for every summer resident is the introduction of humus. However, in this situation, the soil will be filled with the necessary amount of trace elements only in a few years, which will have a bad effect on the cultivation of a tomato. To speed up this process, you can fertilize it with a solution of ammonia and water.Important! So that the soil is not acidified, it is necessary to add organic matter along with a solution of ammonia.
When an acid reaction occurs, it is necessary to chill the soil.
Ammonia fertilizer recipes
Fertilizer dosages for tomatoes can be different, depending on the method of application. The following are recipes:
- 50 ml of sal ammoniac on a bucket of water - for spraying garden plants;
- 3 tbsp. l on a bucket of water - for watering under the root;
- 1 tsp 1 liter of water - for watering seedlings;
- 1 tbsp. l 25% of ammonia per 1 l of water - with signs of nitrogen starvation, such a concentrate is used for emergency irrigation.
Spraying and watering methods
Ammonia is a volatile substance, therefore watering tomatoes with a solution of ammonia should be from a watering can. It is best to water the tomatoes in the morning after dawn, at sunset or in cloudy weather at any time of the day. It is important that the watering of tomatoes be carried out with a nozzle, which gives visible splashes, otherwise the ammonia simply disappears and does not fall into the soil, and, therefore, its fertilizer does not occur.
This type of fertilizer helps the plants to dive easier, helps to accelerate the development of the root system and the growth of seedlings. Manufacturers recommend treating the following cultures with an athlete:
- cabbage and others.
How to apply
In the case of fertilizer "Atlet" everything is extremely simple. It must be diluted according to the instructions on the package. This fertilizer can be sprinkled on the green part of the tomato or applied to the soil. "Athlete" is recommended to make the seedlings of tomatoes grown in the greenhouse. Such conditions lead to the fact that the seedlings of tomatoes, and other crops, stretches upwards, not having time to develop the leaves, the root system and the stem properly. After the active substances of the fertilizer enter the cells of tomatoes, the growth of seedlings slows down. As a result, the redistribution of trace elements entering the cells of tomatoes through the root system occurs.
As a result, the root system of the tomatoes is strengthened, the stem becomes thicker, and the leaves increase in size. All this contributes to the development of a healthy tomato bush, which, in turn, leads to an increase in fertility.Important! "Athlete" does not harm the bees involved in pollinating tomato flowers. In addition, this fertilizer is safe for humans.
If you decide to make fertilizer under the root of tomatoes, then you need to do it once, after the appearance of 3-4 adult leaves on the seedlings. When processing tomatoes from an atomizer, the procedure should be repeated 3-4 times. Usually 1 ampoule is diluted in 1 liter of water. The interval between spraying tomatoes with Atlet fertilizer should be 5-8 days. If after the third treatment, seedlings of tomatoes have not been planted in open ground, then after a week after the last spraying, the procedure should be repeated a fourth time.
It is worth noting that this fertilizer, like the "Athlete" is absolutely harmless to the human body. Iron chelate is used for prophylactic purposes and to combat chlorosis or iron deficiency in the soil on which tomatoes and other crops grow.
There are several signs of iron deficiency in tomatoes:
- the quality and quantity of the crop is deteriorating;
- new shoots are stunted;
- young leaves have a yellow-white color, and the old - light green;
- growth retardation;
- premature leaf fall;
- buds and ovaries are small.
Iron chelate promotes an increase in the amount of chlorophyll in tomato leaves. As a result, the process of photosynthesis in tomatoes improves. In addition, iron content increases in fruits. The metabolic processes in the bushes of tomatoes are restored. The absorption of nutrients by plants is normalized.
Iron chelate as a fertilizer is used both for root feeding and for spraying tomato bushes. To prepare the solution for the root processing of tomatoes, you will need 25 ml of iron chelate per 5 liters of water. Consumption is 4-5 liters per 1 hectare of land planted with tomatoes.
For spraying you need 25 ml of the drug per 10 liters of water. Sick bushes of tomatoes are sprayed 4 times, and as a preventive measure, the procedure is repeated twice. Between treatments of tomatoes should take 2-3 weeks.
Folk remedies for late blight. Garlic infusion
Smart gardeners have also resorted to folk remedies in the fight against diseases of tomatoes. So, an excellent remedy in the fight against late blight is an infusion of garlic. It should be noted that the causative agent of this disease are oomycete fungi, which have microscopic dimensions. The causative agent of the disease can get to the beds of tomatoes at any time during the growing season. Moreover, the symptoms of the disease on the bushes of tomatoes may not appear immediately.
The main symptom of late blight is the appearance of spots on the leaves and stems of a tomato. Over time, these spots darken and harden. Late blight affects the whole shrub, including the root system and fruits. This is a dangerous disease, as it can destroy the entire crop of tomatoes.
Oomycete spores are activated at high humidity, primarily penetrating the leaves of tomatoes. It is precisely as a preventative measure that experienced gardeners recommend airing the greenhouse in a timely manner, thinning the tomato bushes and removing the lower leaves.
Tomatoes should be planted on the sunny side of the garden, as dampness and cold provoke the reproduction of fungi. If possible, the tomatoes each year to be planted in a new place. The fact is that the fungus can spend the winter on the plot and become more active in the summer season.
Gardeners use different mixtures to combat late blight on tomatoes. So, often used decoction or infusion of nettle, tansy, infusion of mullein, a solution of salt and potassium permanganate, yeast, calcium chloride, milk, iodine and fungus-tinder. It is worth noting that garlic has the strongest antifungal effect. In its composition there are phytoncides that suppress the reproduction of spores of oomycetes, pathogens of phytophtoras on tomatoes.
Cooking garlic mixtures
To prepare medicine for tomatoes from phytophtora you need to purchase all the necessary ingredients. There are several recipes that you can use to prepare the medicinal mixture:
- Chop 200 g of garlic in a blender. Then add to the mixture 1 tbsp. l mustard powder, 1 tbsp. l red bitter pepper and fill it all with 2 liters of water. Leave the mixture for a day, let it infuse. After that, the composition must be filtered and diluted in a bucket of water. After 2 weeks after transplanting tomatoes in open ground, they need to be treated with garlic infusion. The procedure is repeated every 10 days. By treating tomatoes with this medicine, you will also protect the plants from pests such as aphids, mites, moths, and moths.
- Make 1.5 cups of gruel of garlic, mix it with 2 g of potassium permanganate and fill it all with a bucket of hot water. Process this mixture every 10 days.
- If you have not done the garlic composition in time and the first signs of the disease have already appeared on the tomatoes, then chop 200 g of garlic into mush and fill it with 4 liters of water. Leave the solution for half an hour, then strain it and pour it into the nebulizer. Process this composition all the fruits of tomatoes.
- To make this infusion, chop 0.5 kg of garlic, which will need to be poured over 3 liters of water. Cover the container and leave in a dark place for 5 days. After this time, the concentrate should be diluted in a bucket of water and 50 g of pre-grated laundry soap should be added to it. With the addition of this ingredient, the adhesion of the agent to the leaves and stems of the tomatoes is improved. Thus, tomatoes treated with garlic infusion will not affect oomycetes for a longer time and it will be possible to re-sprinkle in 3 weeks.
- If you have little time, then chop 150 g of garlic, stir this gruel in a bucket of water, strain it and sprinkle it abundantly on all the bushes of tomatoes.
Using one of these recipes, you will be able to save your planting of tomatoes from the destructive late blight.
So, with a competent approach to the garden business, even a novice summer resident will be able to grow a bountiful crop of tomatoes and other vegetable crops. We also suggest that you watch a video on tomato care: