Cucumbers, originating from the tropics and subtropics of India, are moisture-loving, light-loving culture. It is believed that they have been cultivated for more than 6 thousand years. They began to grow cucumbers first in India and China, then in the third century AD, through Afghanistan, Persia, and Asia Minor, they entered Greece, and from there they diverged throughout Europe. In our country, cucumber came from Byzantium, in the tenth century, Suzdal and Moore became centers for their cultivation.
Cucumber is very picky about fertilizers, this is not surprising, given the pace of its growth. For one season, about 2 kg of greens can be harvested from a square meter, and up to 35 kg in a polycarbonate greenhouse. Growing cucumbers in the garden or in the country, we want to provide our table with environmentally friendly products, therefore, we often think about what You can replace mineral fertilizers. Fertilizing cucumbers with folk remedies presents no particular difficulty. We will give you several options for fertilizer, reliable and proven over time, and also not requiring significant material costs.
What do cucumbers like?
Before turning to fertilizing, you need to know what conditions are necessary for cucumbers for successful life and fruiting.
- Humus-rich soil with a neutral or slightly acid reaction;
- Wet warm, not below 15 degrees, the soil;
- Fertilizer infusion of fresh manure;
- Warm air with a temperature of 20-30 degrees;
- High humidity.
Cucumbers react negatively to:
- Poor, sour, dense soil;
- Watering with water less than 20 degrees;
- Sudden change in temperature;
- Temperature is less than 16 or more than 32 degrees;
- Soil loosening;
At a temperature of less than 20 degrees, cucumbers will slow down the development, at 15-16 - they will stop. High temperatures also do not benefit - the suspension of growth is observed at 32 degrees, and if it rises to 36-38, pollination will not occur. Even short frosts lead to the death of the plant.
Like all pumpkin crops, cucumber has a weak root system and its poor regeneration. When transplanting, loosening and removing weeds, sucking hairs break off, and they no longer recover. It will take a long time for the new root to grow, on which sucking hairs will appear. Soil should be mulched to avoid loosening, and the weeds that emerge are not pulled, but are cut at ground level.
What substances need cucumbers
Cucumbers need a lot of fertilizer. In the short term of the growing season, which, depending on the variety, is 90-105 days, they are capable of producing a fairly large crop under favorable conditions. In addition, cucumbers are forced to feed long shoots and leaves, and their roots are in the arable horizon and are not able to get nutrients from the lower layers of the soil.
The need for essential nutrients changes with development. First, nitrogen should prevail in fertilizers, at the time of formation and development of lateral lashes, the plant absorbs a lot of phosphorus and potassium, and during active fruiting the vegetative mass grows strongly and the cucumber needs high doses of nitrogen supplements again.
Especially a lot of potash fertilizers are needed - they are responsible for flowering and fruiting. If this element is not enough, a good harvest you will not wait.Important! Do not forget about dressing with trace elements - they affect both the health of the plant, and the taste of Zelentsov. Copper is of particular importance for tomatoes, but magnesium is unacceptable for cucumbers.
Fertilizer cucumbers folk remedies
To feed cucumbers with organic fertilizers is more preferable than mineral fertilizers - they have low salt tolerance, and the majority of commercial preparations are salts. In addition, organic or organic food is exactly what we strive for, growing vegetables on our own.
There are many popular ways to feed cucumbers without the use of chemistry. We will give you some popular recipes, and you will choose the most suitable fertilizer.
Important! Follow the principle - it is better to underfeed than to feed.
Ash as fertilizer
Ash is a universal fertilizer, it is an invaluable source of potassium, phosphorus and trace elements, but it contains a lot of nitrogen. If you do not give cucumbers potash fertilizer - there will be no harvest. If phosphorus is not enough in top dressing, the weak root system will not be able to deliver either water or nutrients to the leaves and fruits.
Even when planting seeds in the hole as a fertilizer it is worth making 1/2 cup of ash, mix it well with the soil, pour it well. Further ash cucumbers feed in one of the following ways:
- fertilize under the root immediately before watering at the rate of about 2 tablespoons of a bush;
- dissolve a glass of powder with a liter of water, when feeding, consume 2 l of fertilizer for the plant.
So cucumbers can be fertilized every 10-14 days.Tip! Lightly sprinkle the soil with ashes after irrigation - this will serve not only as a top dressing, but also as a protection against many diseases, as well as some pests.
Manure, bird droppings, green manure
All pumpkin crops, including cucumber, love fertilizer with fresh manure, but only in the form of liquid feeding, making it at the root is unacceptable. All plants react very well to green fertilizer - an infusion of weeds. By introducing nitrogen, we run the risk of increasing the amount of nitrates in fruits and vegetables. This is especially dangerous for cucumbers, requiring higher doses of this substance. Green fertilizer is remarkable in that even if we unwittingly exceed the norm, the risk of the formation of nitrates in fruits is minimal.
The Mullein contains all the nutrients needed to feed the plant, but most of it contains nitrogen. The main differences of bird droppings are that there is more nitrogen in it and there are no weed seeds at all.
Infusions for cucumber fertilizer are prepared as follows: 3-4 buckets of water are taken for a bucket of manure or litter, insisting for several days, stirring occasionally. At this time, fertilizing ferments, uric acid disappears from it - it is she who burns the roots of cucumbers or other plants. Weeds insist, laying them in barrels and flooding with water.
After the mixture is fermented, the mullein is diluted with water 1:10, the litter is 1:20, and the green manure is 1: 5. Fertilize every two weeks at the rate of 2 liters at the root.
Important! If the infusion is filtered and processed cucumbers on a sheet, you get not only a beautiful foliar feeding. This is an excellent prevention or treatment for powdery mildew.
Yeast cucumbers fertilized 2-3 times per season. There are many ways to prepare such dressings. Here is one of the best:
- Yeast - 1 pack;
- Sugar - 2/3 cup;
- Water - 3 liters.
A jar of solution is put in a warm place and insist 3 days, stirring occasionally. A glass of the mixture is diluted in a bucket of water, cucumbers are fed with a 0.5 liter at the root, or filtered and processed on a sheet.
Attention! This infusion can feed and tomatoes.
The infusion of onion peel is not so much a fertilizer as an immunostimulator and protection from pests and diseases. It contains nutrients, tonic cucumber vitamins and quercetin, which belongs to flavonoids, and has a beneficial effect on living organisms.
For these purposes, prepare infusions and decoctions, sprinkle cucumbers or fertilize at the root. The best thing:
- a handful of onion peel pour 1.5 liters of boiling water;
- cook for 5-7 minutes;
- leave to cool;
- top up to 5 l
and spray on the sheet.Important! All foliar processing of cucumbers is best done in the early morning.
Features of fertilizer in greenhouses
In polycarbonate greenhouses, cucumbers are fed in the same way as in the open field, they are simply carried out more often and in no case are they allowed to pass. Indoor ground makes it possible to get almost 15 times more Zelentsa from a square meter than a closed one. Accordingly, the fertilizer should be more.
Signs of nutritional deficiencies
It is not uncommon for cucumbers to lack some kind of battery and it should be given in high doses outside the schedule of supplements. But before you apply fertilizer, you need to determine by external signs what is necessary for the vegetable.Tip! Cucumbers respond most quickly to foliar nutrition. At the same time, fertilize at the root and process the cucumbers on the sheet.
Light small leaves signal that cucumbers urgently need to feed infusion of bird droppings, manure or green manure. The beak curved, narrow, light-colored tip of green grass also indicates a lack of nitrogen fertilizers.
A brown border (marginal burn) on the leaves is a sign of potassium deficiency. About the same speak spherical swollen edges of cucumber. Need extra feeding with ashes.
Leaves directed upwards indicate a lack of phosphate fertilizers. Cucumbers are fed with ashes, and they are necessarily sprayed on the leaf.
Signs of micronutrient deficiencies
Most often cucumbers lack magnesium. At the same time leaves get marble coloring. Dissolve a glass of dolomite flour in a bucket of water, fertilize the soil with the “milk”.
If the leaves are painted in yellow-green color, it means that the cucumbers do not have enough trace elements. It must be remembered that the plants poorly assimilate them from the soil, perhaps you just neglected the foliar dressing. Urgently fertilize the cucumbers on the sheet with an extract of ash. To do this, pour a glass of powder with 5 liters of boiling water, let it stand overnight, and process it in the morning.Tip! Add a vial of epine or zircon to the balloon - these are natural preparations that are absolutely safe, they will help the cucumbers to better absorb foliar feeding, as well as cope with stress.
By feeding cucumbers with folk remedies, you will not only save money, but also grow environmentally friendly products. In addition, organic fertilizer is much more difficult to overfeed the plant.