Growing tomatoes in the open field has its own secrets and rules. One of the important stages is the formation of a bush or pinching side shoots. Not all gardeners use the pasynkovaniya method, as a result, either the crop does not have time to ripen, or the rows of tomatoes thicken too much and start to hurt.
What is needed is the pinching of the side shoots on the bushes of tomatoes, how to properly stick the tomato in the open field, and how the methods of formation depend on the type of plant and its variety - all in this article.
What is pasynkovanie
The tomato bush is very branched, new shoots, leaves, flowers and ovaries constantly appear on it. Pasonas are called vegetative (dormant) buds, which are located in the leaf axils. Up to a certain point, these buds usually sleep, but as soon as a tomato throws out all the ovaries and begins to form fruits, additional shoots start to grow from these buds.
As a result, full-fledged lateral stems with flowers and ovaries are obtained from the stepsons. It would seem that there is bad, because the increase in the number of fruits only on hand gardener?
But not everything is so simple. A large number of inflorescences and ovaries does not at all indicate an increase in yield. Even on the contrary: the extra stepchildren reduce the quality of the fruits and prevent them from ripening.Important! If you do not promptly remove the stepsons from the tomato bushes, the already formed fruits will begin to ripen very slowly, and the newly emerging ones will be smaller.
The damage from the stepsons on tomatoes is as follows:
- reduce yield;
- help reduce the size of all fruits;
- stretch the ripening period of tomatoes;
- thicken planting, lead to a strong foliage of the bush, which leads to the development of infections and diseases of tomatoes;
- too many fruits can break off the shoots;
- they take away from the plant the forces necessary for it to fully ripen the first fruits;
- lead to deformation and strong growth of bushes.
As a result, unpolished tomato bushes knot a large number of fruits, but these tomatoes do not have time to ripen before the onset of autumn cold, as the plant does not have enough strength for such a volume of harvest. A gardener will receive a bush with green and small fruits by autumn.
Do you always need to remove the side shoots on tomatoes
The formation of tomatoes in the open field is not always necessary, more careful staking process should be carried out in greenhouses. The fact is that in the open ground, domestic gardeners, as a rule, plant early ripe determinant varieties of tomato.
Determinantal varieties of tomatoes are characterized by the fact that after the appearance on the bushes of a certain number of ovaries (usually from three to seven), the growth of lateral shoots stops automatically. Thus, the tomatoes do not need to form and control - on the bushes will grow as many stepsons as required to ensure a normal harvest.
However, this applies only to super early or early determinant varieties, fruit ripening on which ends in the middle of summer. The climate of most regions of Russia is such that already in August rains and a decrease in temperature begin, in September there may be the first frosts.
In such climatic conditions, tomatoes do not ripen, they can only start to hurt and lose ovaries along with green fruits. Therefore, among the gardeners of the country there is an unspoken rule: "Only those tomatoes that have formed before the first of August will have time to ripen." What to do with the rest of the shoots and buds? They must be removed or broken off, that is, pinned. This is what the pinching of tomatoes is in the open field for varieties with limited growth (determinant).
Indeterminate tomato varieties have such a feature: stepchildren and additional shoots on the bushes are constantly formed, the main stem also does not stop its growth. To control the number of fruits and form a shrub, you have to constantly pinch the shoots of such tomatoes.
Tip! Experienced gardeners recommend starting removal of stepsons on tomatoes even during the transplanting period. In the seedlings of indeterminate varieties, additional shoots are clearly visible in this period.
Mass stepchildren begin to appear when 5-7 ovaries are formed on the bushes (depending on the variety). From this point on, the gardener needs to periodically, once in 7-10 days, examine the bushes of tomatoes and break off the shoots.
The pattern of formation of indeterminate tomatoes in open ground is somewhat different from the pinching of determinantal varieties. In this case, they pinch not only the lateral processes under the leaves of tomatoes, you also need to break off the tops of the main stems. If this is not done, the bush will continue to grow upwards, at the same time forming inflorescences and ovaries - all this weakens the plant and inhibits the ripening of fruits.
Important! Too much coking of a tomato can indicate an excess of mineral fertilizers in the soil, namely an excess amount of nitrogen.
Today, breeders have brought a lot of varieties of tomatoes, which, in general, do not form stepchildren. This, of course, greatly facilitates the care of the beds - such tomatoes can be planted and wait for the harvest, only by regularly watering the bushes.
These varieties include superdeterminant and hybrid tomatoes. These species are “programmed” to form a certain number of ovaries, after which the growth of the bushes stops.
How to remove stepchildren
The correct pinching of tomatoes not only ensures an early harvest and large fruits, the health of the whole plant directly depends on it.
Here are a few rules that a gardener should follow:
- Formation of tomatoes in the open field is performed in the morning. It is in the morning that tomato bushes are as saturated as possible with moisture, the stems are resilient and fragile, so the stepson will break off more easily and the trauma of the plant will be minimal. In addition, by the end of the day and before the cold wet night begins, the tomato will have enough time for the wounds to heal and dry - the risk of infection of the stepson breakpoints is minimal.
- The optimal time for removing the stepsons from a tomato, when the length of the shoots is from three to five centimeters. Such shoots have not yet managed to take away a lot of strength from the bush of tomatoes, the place of their break will be barely noticeable, the wound is small. It is better not to break off larger shoots, if the gardener missed them or did not manage to remove them at a “young” age, you need to pinch the tops of these shoots.
- It is best to pick off the stepchildren by hand, but it is recommended to wear rubber gloves to prevent infection in the wounds. Stepsy pinch with two fingers and shake a little from side to side, gradually breaking off.
- If a knife or scissors is used to remove the stepsons, it is necessary to follow the sharpness of the blades - they must be very thin in order to injure the tomatoes less. After each bush has been treated, the blade is disinfected by any means (for example, a one percent solution of potassium permanganate).
- Do not throw dangling stepchildren tomatoes on the ground, they can become a source of infection. Spikes need to collect and throw away from the garden.
- The point of development of tall tomatoes pinch the same way as the side shoots. 3-4 leaves should be left under the cliff site.
An approximate scheme of pinching a tomato is shown in the photo below.
Important! In place of dangling stepsons, new shoots often appear, they must be controlled and also removed in a timely manner. In order to slow down the growth of new shoots, it is recommended to leave “hemp” with a height of about 1.5 cm when removing the stepsons.
How to form tomatoes in open ground
The method or scheme for the formation of tomato bushes depends on several factors at once:
- plant type (determinant or indeterminant);
- varieties of tomato (with the development stopped or not);
- tomato ripening speed;
- weather conditions (in cloudy and cool summer even determinant varieties risk not having time to give the whole crop, so the bushes “thin out” a little, removing a few stepsons);
- climatic peculiarities of the region (if in the southern regions even indeterminate varieties can bear fruit until November, then in the northern part of the country only those ovaries are left that managed to take shape in the first half of summer);
- requirements of the gardener himself: the number of fruits is important for someone, and for others, the quality and size of tomatoes is a priority.
If the owner of the site in the first place puts the yield, it is necessary to grow tomatoes in several stems.
Formation of tomatoes in one stem
The method of growing tomatoes in one stem is most often used in greenhouse conditions, but it can also be used outdoors, especially when tall indeterminate varieties are planted.
This principle obliges the gardener to remove absolutely all stepchildren, leaving only one central stem. As a result, only a certain number of ovaries will be formed, which is regulated by a variety of tomatoes.
The complexity of the method lies in the fact that it is necessary to constantly monitor the condition of the bush and timely remove new shoots. In addition, the formation of one stalk dramatically reduces the total number of fruits - there will be 3-5 ovaries on the bushes.
This method is suitable for those who grow early tomatoes for sale, because the plant, not weakened by the stepchildren, throws all its strength to the ripening of the first (and last) fruits. It is possible to get a harvest 10-14 days earlier, and the cost of tomatoes, as is known, is very high during this period. In addition, the fruits will be large and beautiful.Attention! To grow tomatoes in one stem, you need to plant 2-3 times more seedlings, thereby controlling the amount of the crop.
Formation of tomatoes in two stalks
Far more often domestic gardeners use methods of forming bushes in several stems, because it is possible to increase the yield of tomatoes.
In order for the bushes to turn out two trunks, it is necessary to remove all stepchildren, leaving only the one that is located under the very first brush. This side shoot will become a full-fledged stalk; almost as many fruits will ripen on it as on the central stalk.
Thus, it will turn out to increase the yield of the tomato almost doubled, while the speed of their ripening will be slightly lower than in the first case. The tomatoes themselves may also be somewhat smaller than if the bush had formed only in one stem.
Forming bushes in three stalks
This is the best option for the formation of tomato bushes, so it is most often used when growing tomatoes in open ground.
To complete the formation of the bush in three stems, it is necessary to determine the central shoot, select the first ovary. Now it remains to follow the formation of leaves, below this ovary: you need to leave stepchildren growing from the sinuses of the first and second leaves after the ovary.
Since the leaves on the tomatoes appear alternately, the abandoned stepchildren should be directed in opposite directions, so the shape and balance of the bush will be preserved (as in the photo).
The formation of tomatoes in three stalks allows you to get the maximum yield, the fruits will be quite large and ripe. Only in the northern regions or in some areas of the middle band on the bushes may remain some undisturbed fruits. In this case, the green tomatoes are torn off and left to ripen in a dry and warm place (for example, on a windowsill).Important! Not all tomatoes need to stepchain and form into several stems (this is written above).
Hearing about staving a tomato and the formation of bushes in several stems, do not immediately rush to your seedlings with scissors. It is far from necessary to remove and pinch shoots, in each case, this procedure is mandatory only for indeterminant varieties with uncontrolled growth. In other cases, the gardener must independently decide on the need for beefing, on the basis of the state of the plants, the number of ovaries on them and the weather conditions in their region.
You can learn more about pasying tomatoes in open field from the video: