Having moved to North America, the Europeans immediately noticed bright flowers growing in the forests with a black center. They called the plant "Black Eyes of Susanna" and began to grow it in their gardens, gradually cultivating and bringing new varieties. Once in Europe, the flower was named "rudbeckia", in honor of a famous botanist. Since then, the plant has managed to gain popularity in almost all countries of the world, Orudbeckia is constantly selected and displays all new varieties and hybrids. There are both annual flowers and varieties with a life expectancy of two years or several years. The main advantage of Rudbeck is its unpretentiousness and ease of reproduction.
This article will be devoted to how to grow an annual Rudbeckia from seeds, when to plant perennial varieties and how to care for these flowers. Also here it will be told about the most famous varieties of plants and a brief description of the species.
Rudbeckia is very actively used in the design of gardens and plots, landscape designers love it, the flower is suitable for making flowerbeds, framing fences and hedges, bright inflorescences well emphasize the beauty of the buildings.
Among the annual and perennial species of rudbeckia, there are many varieties that differ in color of inflorescences and stems height. Typically, plant height varies from 30 to 100 cm, but there are also giant varieties that grow more than a meter.Attention! When composing compositions with the participation of a "black-eyed" flower, it is necessary to take into account its dimensions - the plant is quite tall and spreading.
Stems in Rudbeckia grassy, hard, covered with a small down. The leaves are also pubescent, carved, of medium size and dark green. The inflorescences are quite large, in some varieties, the flower diameter may exceed 15 cm. The shape of the inflorescence is simple, the petals are arranged in one row.
The most expressive feature is rudbecky - their variegated coloring, these flowers can be painted in:
- yellow uniform shade;
- golden yellow color;
- different tones of brown.
There are rudbeckia with inflorescences of other shades, but they are quite rare and belong to the expensive elite varieties.
Common species and varieties
Rudbeckia is usually classified into groups of annuals and perennials. In each group there are several species and dozens of varieties, they all have distinctive features.
The most famous species in Russia are:
- Enveloping This is an annual plant that blooms from early summer until the first frost. The name received the look because of the petals lowered down, as if embracing a powerful stalk. The leaves of this species are large, the baskets of flowers are also pleased with their large size - the plant looks very impressive in group plantings.
- The shaggy black-eyed beauty can be grown both as an annual and as a biennial plant. This species may still be called hairy. A peculiarity of such flowers is the remarkable height of the bush - almost all varieties reach more than a meter height. The baskets of the inflorescences are painted in a rich yellow color, and their middles are brown.
- Cleaved perennial rudbeckia, it blooms from July to August. The most common variety is the Golden Ball.
- The glossy variety also belongs to perennials. Its flowering continues from early July to late August. You can find out the flowers of this species by the clarified middle.
- In brilliant rudbeckia, on the contrary, the middle of the flower is colored in a darker shade compared to the edges.
- The sun-watched variety grows in the wild, but can also be grown in gardens. It is a perennial plant with smaller flowers.
Popular varieties of annuals are:
- Golden Ray;
- Cherry Brandy (rare variety with carmine-red flowers);
All of the varieties listed are propagated by seeds, which the florist can purchase at a flower shop or collect independently from their flowerbeds.Tip! It is not necessary to collect seeds from hybrid ores - the genes of such flowers quickly mutate, and in the next season the grower risks not getting what he expected.
Unlike perennials, all annual flowers can only be propagated by seed. And there are two ways of growing: seedlings and planting seeds in the ground. Both of these methods are successfully used by Russian flower growers, but each of them has its own rules and features.
Reproduction of seedlings
Planting Rudbeckia seedlings is troublesome, but it guarantees a good result. Usually flower growers from the northern regions of the country or those who grow especially valuable varieties of flowers resort to the rassatny method of reproduction.Attention! Those who have purchased expensive rare-seed seeds are recommended to be a seedling method of their cultivation, because germination of seeds in this case will be almost one hundred percent.
To decide when to sow orebukia for seedlings, it is necessary to take into account the climate in a particular region of the country. By the time the plants are transported to the ground, the temperature of the air should stabilize, and at the very seedlings, several true leaves will appear.
Experienced growers recommend sowing seeds of "black-eyed" flowers in the spring, because in February there is still not enough sunlight - this can lead to stretching of seedlings
The optimal time for sowing seeds of rudbeckia is the end of March or the beginning of April. Then in the ground it will be possible to transfer the seedlings in the last days of May or in early June, when the threat of frost is completely bypassed.
Preparation and seeding
Home-grown flower seeds must be prepared for planting. Purchased planting material, as a rule, has already passed all the necessary stages of preparation and appropriate processing.
The most important thing is to restore the water balance of flower seeds. To do this, planting material must be placed in water at room temperature and kept for about 15-20 hours.
Tip! After soaking the seeds, it is better to lay them out on a paper napkin and dry them a little so that they become crumbly.
For convenience, before sowing, small flower seeds are mixed with dry river sand. Soil for seedlings of rudbeckia is needed the most common: a universal purchase substrate or a mixture of peat and garden soil prepared on its own. The soil is preliminarily disinfected in any way: it is poured over with a solution of potassium permanganate or copper sulfate, calcined in the oven or frozen in the street.
Sowing seeds of rudbeckia in seedlings is as follows:
- Capacities for seedlings are selected: plastic containers, wooden boxes, flower pots or peat cups.
- Capacities for seedlings are filled with substrate.
- Land should be watered the day before sowing seeds.
- In the ground they make small grooves and evenly spread the seeds of orebeckia in them.
- Now you need to sprinkle the seeds with a thin layer of soil, the thickness of which does not exceed 2-3 mm.
- Cover the containers with plastic wrap and place in a dark place with a temperature of about 16-20 degrees.
Before germination, orebeckia is not watered - a humid microclimate should remain under the film. After two weeks, green shoots should appear - at this time the film should be removed and containers should be placed in a brighter place at room temperature.
Care for seedlings of flowers is very simple. After germination, Rudbeckia needs regular watering, therefore, it is not necessary to allow the soil to dry out, it is necessary to constantly irrigate the seedlings using a spray gun.Important! Delicate flower seedlings do not tolerate transplantation, so do not dive plants. It is better to immediately arrange the flower seeds at a sufficient distance (3-5 cm) or plant them in individual cups or seedling cassettes.
10-14 days before transplanting to a permanent place, seedlings begin to harden, bringing it to a balcony, veranda or opening a window. At the same time, you can feed the flowers with a mineral complex.
The second method of growing flowers - sowing seeds directly into the ground. This is the method most often used by domestic flower growers, because germination of seeds of rudbeckia usually goes well.
That's just to sow the seeds of "black-eyed" flowers need a little bit differently than everyone else. The fact is that the suitable time for sowing seed is considered to be the middle of summer - the period from the end of June to the twentieth of July. Therefore, the plants will begin to bloom only in a year - next summer.
The advantage of this planting is its simplicity, because the florist does not have to bother with seedlings. But there is a significant disadvantage: Rudbeckia from seeds will begin to bloom only next year, which significantly complicates the design of flower beds and flower gardens with the participation of this plant.
Sowing seeds in the ground is as follows:
- the soil is previously loosened and mineral fertilizers are added to it;
- then make shallow grooves (1.5-2 cm) at equal distance from each other;
- evenly spread the seed ore, keeping the same interval as when planting seedlings in the ground;
- powdered flower seeds with a thin layer of dry soil;
- sprayed planting spray.
Now you need to take care of young plants: remove weeds, weed between rows and loosen the soil, water the flowers regularly and thin them out for better development. It is also recommended to feed the orebeckia with complex fertilizers at least twice during the summer.
By autumn, the plants should form a strong rosette of leaves. For the winter of Rudbeckia, you need to prepare: cut off the socket at the root and mulch the earth with a five-centimeter layer of peat. In the spring, young sprouts will sprout, and already in June, Rudbeckia will begin to bloom.
Reproduction of perennial varieties
It is recommended to grow perennial rudbeckia, as opposed to one-year-old, only by sowing seeds in the ground. Sowing is also necessary: at the end of May or in June, when the soil warms up well.
Autumn, fully formed bushes of rudbeckia need to dive, planting them in a permanent place. After that, the flowers are pruned and mulched so that the roots do not freeze over the winter. The plants will start blooming from the next summer, and 3-4 seasons will steadily rejoice in their lush color.Attention! Almost all varieties and types of ore are excellent for breeding by self seeding. Sometimes this is enough, which greatly facilitates the work of the florist.
Rudbeckia is an unpretentious and very colorful flower that is easy to grow and easier to care for. Photos of flowers are full of bright colors, the beds with this plant look picturesque and country-style, which is quite consistent with the trends of country music that are fashionable today.
Rudbeckia is grown from seeds that can be collected independently or purchased at any flower shop.