From varieties of pears breeder Seeds Fedorovich Chernenko Russian beauty in the gardens can be found most often. This is facilitated by the good taste of the fruit, a rather long shelf life for the autumn variety and good winter hardiness. To understand what other advantages it differs, you should carefully study the description of the variety, photos and reviews about the pear Russian beauty.
Description pear varieties Russian beauty
The pear variety Russian Beauty was created by S. F. Chernenko in the All-Russian Research Institute of Genetics and Breeding of Fruit Plants. I. Michurin and originally bore his name - Beauty Chernenko. Bere Ardanpon and Daughter Blankova became the parents. In the State Register of Breeding Achievements, the variety has been present since 1996. It is recommended for cultivation in the Central regions, but it is also found further south — in Ukraine, Belarus, and the Caucasus. The description of the Russian beauty pear presented in the photo should start with the characteristics of the tree.
Its appearance is typical:
- the branches stretch upward, reaching a five-meter height in an adult plant, the width of the crown is small even at the base, on the whole it has a pyramidal shape;
- this grade of pear is no different than the thickened one;
- The shoots have almost no bends, they are red-brown, covered with a large number of lentils;
- large leaves with well-pronounced central vein of elongated shape, dark green, with barely noticeable notches along the edge;
- fruit buds are large, cone-shaped and chestnut-colored;
- flowers are large, bloom at the end of May, starting with the rings and ending with twigs.
Tip! In order for the crown of pear Beauty Chernenko to form correctly, the shoots bend back the first few years of the plant’s life, forming a tilt angle of 50 °.
Despite the fact that the Russian beauty is regionalized in the Central District, its winter hardiness is at an average level - freezing of shoots is possible in severe winters.
Without information about the fruit, it is impossible to describe the variety of pears Russian beauty, reviews of gardeners say that they are both tasty and beautiful. Not every variety boasts pears weighing 300 g, however, not all fruits reach this weight, they are not one-dimensional, on one tree there is a variation in weight from 160 to 300 g.
The taste of pears is also high - they have a delicate, slightly oily flesh with a lot of juice, it has much more sweetness than acid. Peel loose.
Beautiful and appearance of pears. In the period of removable ripeness, the greenish-yellow color is only slightly diluted with a slight reddish-brown blush. During storage, its intensity increases.
The shape of the fruit is correct, elongated, clearly visible tuberosity. Pears ripen in the last decade of August or a little later, the dates depend on the growing region and the weather. Store in the refrigerator for up to 45 days.
Russian beauty is not skoroplodna. The first pears can be tried only for 7-8 years. It grows gradually, the adult tree gives on average up to 140 kg of fruits, and with good care up to 200 kg. At this level, the yield is maintained up to 30 years, then as the tree ages, it begins to fall. The life of a pear Russian beauty is up to 50 years, and if it is well looked after and carried out a rejuvenating pruning, then even longer.
Optimal conditions for growing
In order for a Russian beauty variety pear to fully reveal its full yield potential, the following conditions need to be created for it:
- full sun lighting throughout the day;
- landing in places where there is no strong wind on a flat surface or in the middle of the south, south-east or south-west slope;
- good supply of moisture - pear Beauty Chernenko does not tolerate drought, the skin of fruits with a lack of water coarsens;
- the area where there is no stagnation of water in spring, and the groundwater level is low (not higher than 2 m);
- fertile soil when planting - non-acidic loam is best suited;
- regular and timely feeding;
- correct crown formation and timely trimming;
- protection from diseases and pests.
Pollinators pears Russian beauty
This type of pear is self-propelled and will give a good harvest even with a single planting. But in the presence of other varieties that bloom at the same time, it will be higher. The most optimal pollinator variety is considered to be Lyubovitsa Yakovleva pear.
Pros and cons of the variety Russian beauty
Like any tree that gives fruit, this variety has its pros and cons:
Starts late fruiting
Good taste, excellent presentation of pears
Requires careful maintenance
Long enough storage period
Average frost resistance
Resistance to diseases caused by fungi
Pears one dimension
Another drawback is the strong growth of the tree; collecting fruits from it is rather difficult.
Planting and care for pear Russian beauty
Without careful care a high yield from a pear Russian beauty not collect - it is demanding compliance with agricultural technology. The most important thing is to properly organize the planting, the successful development of the tree will largely depend on it.
Landing dates vary by region and weather conditions. To root the tree, it will take a frost-free period of 3 weeks. It is planted only at rest - with already flown leaves in the fall and not yet swollen buds in the spring. For the southern regions, it is preferable to plant a Russian beauty pear in the autumn, and for the northern - in the spring.
As with all fruit trees, it is better to prepare and fill the hole for planting pears with prepared soil in the preceding season, observing the following conditions:
- dimensions: width and depth 70-80 cm, sheer walls, they make notches with a shovel;
- top fertile layer 20 cm high lay separately.
Further actions depend on the timing of planting a tree:
- in autumn, the deposited fertile land is mixed with humus (2-3 buckets) and a pear is planted in it, and fertilizers - 200 g of double superphosphate and 60 g of potassium sulfate are applied to the top layer of soil, in the fall they will not be needed by the seedling, and to the roots;
- In spring, the planting mixture is prepared immediately from all components, so that the growing Russian root system of the Russian beauty can immediately use them.
- Choose a 1-2 year old pear sapling with well developed weed roots and an intact trunk.
- The central root is cut by 10 cm, and the root system is immersed in a root-formation stimulator solution for 3-6 hours.
- At the bottom of the landing pit form a mound of the prepared mixture. Council! Experienced gardeners are advised to lay 10 raw chicken eggs at the bottom of the pit or pour a handful of rye seeds under the roots.
- Drive a peg to the bottom of the pit from the south side.
- A Russian beauty is installing a pear sapling and spreading its roots.
- Sprinkle them with planting mixture, gently shaking the seedling so that the soil fits more closely to the roots.
- Special attention is required to the location of the root collar (the place where the roots pass into the trunk) of the pear. It should be 2-3 cm above the edges of the pit. After the soil settles, its location will be at the level of the ground. Council! Do not make a mistake to help the board, which put from the edge to the edge of the pit.
- When half of the roots of the pear are covered, the ground is moistened with a bucket of water and 2 or 3 more are poured in after they are completely covered with earth.
- Pristvolny circle gently compacted by trampling to form a hole with a slope to the center. It is mulched with any kind of organic matter, but best of all humus or peat is a layer of 5 cm, departing 2-3 cm from the trunk.
- Soft material is tied up with a pear stem to a peg.
- In the one-year-old seedling, the central shoot is cut by about a third, its height should be from 80 to 90 cm, in the two-year-old seedlings the side shoots are also shortened.
Watering and feeding
After spring planting, the Russian beauty is watered weekly with a bucket per plant.
In the absence of rain, mature trees need 6 to 7 times per season:
- with the advancement of the buds;
- immediately after the petals fall off;
- from 3 to 4 - in the summer season;
- in the fall after leaf fall.
One watering will require up to 4 buckets of water. It is carried out in 2 stages - 2 buckets in the morning and the same in the evening.
Top dressing begin to do a year after disembarkation. For adult pear per 1 square. m circle wheel required:
- spring - ammonium nitrate 30 g per 15 liters of water;
- when the petals fall - in June 15 g of superphosphate and 20 g of potassium sulfate, the soil is loosened and watered;
- in the autumn - 20 g of potassium sulfate and 30 g of superphosphate, at the same time, mulching of the trunk circle with humus is carried out, they are dug up in the spring, buried in the soil.
If the tree is young - the rate of fertilizer is reduced by half
Pruning for the Russian beauty is required, it will not allow the crown to gain height, which facilitates harvesting.
- In the spring, it is sanitary, cutting out dried and frozen out branches, and forming trimmings, in each tier they leave 4 of the strongest escapes growing horizontally to the ground, the center conductor is shortened, cutting all the branches into a ring.
- In the summer - pinching, pinching unnecessary growing shoots to the hard part.
- In the autumn - the continuation of sanitary and formative pruning, if necessary.
It must be remembered that in the fall pruning should be gentle so as not to weaken the pear tree. Russian beauty before winter. Only young trees need active formation. Older branches shorten too long branches and cut out those that grow inside the crown.
It is not carried out for aesthetic reasons, as many believe. This is a great way to protect pear bark not only from sunburn and subsequent frost damage, but also from pests and pathogens.
Whitewashing is carried out in 2 stages:
- in autumn, in October or November - the main;
- in February, towards the end - renewing.
At the same time, not only the stems whiten, but a third of the lower skeletal branches of the pear and their fork. Pre-crust cleaned with a soft, non-metallic or plastic brush, but rather with gloved hands on lichens, removing the detached parts. Then it is disinfected with a 3% solution of copper sulphate or ash solution and the cracks are filled with garden pitch or special paste.
For whitewashing special mixes with the addition of adhesives are produced, so that it does not wash off longer.
Important! If a lime-based solution is used for young pears, its concentration should be twice lower in order to avoid burns.
Preparing for the winter
Of course, it is not possible to shelter an adult pear tree of the Russian beauty variety for the winter due to its size, but something can be done to insulate it.
- Raking debris and fallen leaves from a circle around a circle, they dig it up.
- Mulch it with humus or peat layer of about 20 cm.
- Tie shtamb after whitewash lapnik, sacking.
Diseases and pests
The scab Russian beauty is rarely affected, and other diseases of the fungal nature are not too annoying, provided that the site for planting is chosen correctly and the care is carried out properly.
- Powdery dew on a pear can be identified by gray bloom on fruits and leaves.
- With the defeat of brown spot, there are increasing spots of the same color.
- Fruit rot manifests itself as a brownish-brown spot with white patches in the form of dots.
Measures to combat these fungal diseases of pears are the same - spraying copper-containing fungicides according to the instructions.
Pests also love to feast on the delicious fruits of the Russian beauty.
Fruit gall midge is a dangerous monophage, harming only pear.
The larvae settle in the ovaries in the spring, due to which the pears grow ugly or dry out completely. Struggling with her with the help of karbofos.
The caterpillars of another monophagus, the pear moth peppered, gnawed in the fruit passages, which leads to their rotting, the presentation of pears is lost.
From non-chemical methods will help a variety of traps and foliar feeding fertilizer solutions. The choice of insecticides is quite wide: apply Agravertin, Kinmiks, Iskra.
Reviews on the grade of pear Russian beautyAndrei Semenikhin, 54, Vyazma. I have a large orchard. Not too chasing new products, old varieties, about which everything is already known, are more reliable. Planted many apple trees. But with pears more difficult, there are not so many varieties that will delight with taste and will look beautiful. Ten years ago, looking at new items made to the State Register, drew attention to the pear Russian beauty. I read the reviews of gardeners and realized that this is my grade. Large beautiful fruits with good taste - what else is needed. True, the average winter hardiness of the Russian beauty alerted. But I already have such pears in my garden. Not yet freezed. I bought a two-year-old in the Smolensk cattery and landed according to the rules. I had to wait a long time. Formed as it should be crown. 2 years ago, my pear blossomed. He left a few test specimens so as not to weaken the tree. I liked the taste of the whole family. Igor Dunaev, 46 years old, BryanskGrush in the garden does not happen much. That's just the area of the site does not allow to turn around. Help out vaccinations. So the Russian beauty appeared in me. Long sought cuttings, the grade is not too common. Muscovites planted it in the crown - they bloom at the same time, which means they will pollinate each other. It’s not necessary to wait as long as it takes to land. The grafted branch of the Russian beauty blossomed in the second year, blossomed its buds. In the third year I have already tried pears of the new variety. The taste is quite good, but the size is much larger than that of the Muscovite.
Description varieties, photos and reviews of pear Russian beauty will help gardeners to decide when choosing seedlings. This pear variety is for those who wait and loves large and beautiful fruits.