Caring for chokeberry in the fall prepares the shrub for wintering and lays the foundation for the next year's fruiting. The vivacious, strong-growing aronia refers to crops of guaranteed yield. It is capable of stably tying berries without care, but the lack of attention to chokeberry sooner or later affects the health of the bush. Berries become smaller, pests appear, useless thickets appear on the site of planting.
How to care for chokeberry in the fall
The complex of events held in the garden in autumn is aimed at a successful wintering of plants. For chokeberry, basic needs are light and moisture, the absence of harmful insects and diseases. With the remaining tasks, a viable culture can handle itself.
The main care for the blackfruit in the fall:
- Pre-winter watering.
- Infection prevention.
Blackberry berries ripen late. Depending on the climate, they are cleaned from the beginning of autumn to the very cold. Immediately after the removal of the berries begin to work on the care. In an area where chokeberry is harvested from under the snow, all activities have to be carried out before harvesting.
Specific methods for autumnal care black chokeberry does not require. All of them are known to gardeners for other fruit crops. However, each of the stages has its own characteristics and must be considered in more detail.
How to prune chokeberry in autumn
The main work on the formation and rejuvenation of the bush is carried out in the spring, when it is possible to assess the condition of the plant after wintering. Pruning mountain ash in the fall is guided by other goals.
The strength of chokeberry leads to the fact that the stems and lateral processes appear during the growing season. The middle of the bush to autumn thickens, pulled up in search of light. Such black chokeberry is prone to disease, the fruits on it are tied only on the side shoots.
It is possible to thin out a plant throughout the whole season. In the summer, whenever possible, they remove thin and thickening processes that take away strength from the plant. In the autumn, other black chokeberry problems may be discovered that require intervention:
- the appearance of leaves affected by infections;
- broken branches, dried shoots;
- areas of burst bark on adult trunks;
- abundance of radical overgrowth, thickening the bush;
- clusters of insects seeking to winter in the soil.
Leave the black chokeberry bush to winter need to be cleaned and thinned. In all these cases, pruning is required.
Detailed instructions for planting, care, pruning chokeberry in the fall and spring in the video from an experienced gardener.
When pruning mountain ash: in the fall or spring
The main time pruning in the garden rightly considered spring. Before the start of sap flow, chokeberry should be carefully examined, all dead branches removed. Frozen areas are shortened to live, green wood. It is also convenient to form bushes in spring, before the start of rapid growth of black chokeberry.
At the end of the season can not do without a landing inspection. The bushes of black chokeberry by the autumn greatly expand. Thickening and breeding insects can harm the plant in winter, which will stop the development of the bush when it gets warm. Fungal infections from the branches not harvested in time, overwintering, attack the healthy stalks of the black chokeberry in spring.
Sanitary pruning is appropriate at any time. Cut thickening or diseased branches of chokeberry should be immediately after the detection of the problem: in spring, summer or autumn, excluding only the period with minus temperatures.
Pruning of chokeberry in the fall for beginners
It is important to prune the chokeberry long before the frost. Cuts, wounds on the branches and trunks should be delayed or dry out, which will prevent their freezing. In different regions, the timing of pruning is different. Should be guided by the average annual temperature in a particular area, the approximate time: September - October.Tip! If the period of the onset of frosts is unknown, or the cuts on the black chokeberry are large, wounds should be treated with a garden pitch.
The formation of the bush produced in the spring. When planting chokeberry in the fall, it is also not recommended to shorten the young shoots, it increases their vulnerability to frost and diseases. Overwintered shoots are best formed after the snow melted.
Sanitary pruning in the fall is to remove thin, thickening, growing inside the bush shoots. Branches of aronia, diseased, cut out completely. It is desirable to make cuts below the soil level. Hemp left above ground often becomes a refuge for insects and a breeding ground for infections.
If it became necessary to rejuvenate chokeberry in the fall, cut out no more than half of the skeletal branches. The rest can be shortened. Radical rejuvenation by cutting the entire bush, experienced gardeners recommend spring.Comment! All plant residues after pruning rowanberry must be collected and burned. Do not leave fallen leaves in pristvolnom circle. With them penetrate into the ground the pest larvae wintering in the soil.
Treatment of black insects in the fall against pests and diseases
Most of the diseases of Aronia are of fungal nature. They are treatable and preventable by copper-containing compounds. The most common, proven drug for spraying in the fall is a Bordeaux mixture in 1% concentration or copper oxychloride.
Before processing, you should carefully examine the plant, if necessary, remove diseased shoots, dispose of them. Copper sulphate solution also helps to prevent the occurrence of black chokeberry pests. Such a spray in the fall can be called universal.
The exceptions are brown mites, parasitizing on the black wolf. When they are detected, spraying with special acaricidal agents will be required: Karbofos, Kleschevitom, Apollo, Tedion.
Cherry sawfly, ashberry moth, other beetles, butterflies, all summer lived in the crown and on the fruits, in the fall, with fallen leaves fall to the ground. The larvae overwinter in the layer of plant debris or move to the ground. To prevent the transfer of pests in the next season, you can only collect all the fallen leaves and remove them from the site. Then Aronia is sprayed, and the soil is mulched with non-infected material.
How to plant black chokeberry in autumn
Autumn is the most convenient time for planting black chokeberry. You can have time to prepare the planting pits, leisurely choose seedlings and not worry that unpredictable frosts will destroy the shoots.
Saplings that have ripened over the summer are less susceptible to freezing than fresh growth during spring planting. In the autumn the root system takes root better. Its active development stops only at -4 ° C.
To adapt the roots of black chokeberry, planted in the autumn, 20 days are sufficient before the onset of stable cold weather. In the spring, such a plant wakes up faster, begins to rapidly build up the above-ground part. At this time, spring planting seedlings only come to their senses.
Where better to plant black chokeberry in autumn
Chernoplodka grows well on any soil, excluding highly saline. Its root system is well tolerated by the high standing of groundwater, spring flood. Therefore, for planting in the fall will suit any area where there is enough sun.
For lighting black currant is very demanding. In shaded areas, aronia can only be grown as a decorative crop. For flowering and fruit set will require a lot of light.
Planted along the boundary of the site, on the side of the prevailing winds, black chokeberry can serve as a draft protection for the entire garden.
The time chosen for work must meet two requirements: not to be too warm and not precede frost. By planting chokeberry too early in the fall, when the temperature still rises above +15 ° C, it is possible to get a developing above-ground part, not roots.
Later, when the air temperature decreases more, aronia is not prone to the growth of branches, but increases the root system. This is especially pronounced if the landing in the fall to mulch.
Planting dates vary from September to November, vary greatly by region and are selected depending on the climate.
How to plant chokeberry in the fall
In order to properly plant the black chokeberry in the fall, you must pre-select and prepare a place in the garden. Planting pits (50 * 50 cm) dig in advance for shrinking soil.
The soil is enriched with the addition of humus, wood ash, superphosphate. At the bottom of the landing pits lay drainage: pebbles, rubble, broken bricks.
Aronia planting process in autumn:
- Water is poured into the prepared pits up to ½ of the volume and waited for it to completely go into the soil.
- In the center piled a mound of fertile substrate, establish a seedling on it.
- Spreading the roots, gently sprinkle them with soil, avoiding the appearance of voids.
- Shedding the seat with water, control the subsidence of the soil, pour the substrate to the edge of the pit.
- The surface can be immediately mixed to preserve moisture.
The layout of the black chokeberry in autumn can be arbitrary. Well tolerated culture single landing. For increased fruiting maintain a distance of 3 m between the bushes. As a hedge, chokeberry requires thickening up to 1.5 m and is planted in trenches.
Nuances of landing in the suburbs and Siberia
Aronia has been growing well throughout Central Russia. Moscow region is one of the most favorable regions for growing crops. Nevertheless, do not forget one of the main rules of gardening: choose zoned varieties.
In order not to be mistaken, it is enough to purchase chokeberry in local nurseries. Seedlings grown under similar conditions, it is easier to take root. The most popular varieties of chokeberry in the Moscow region: Chernookaya, Viking, Nero, Hugin.
Chokeberry exclusively winter-hardy, can be cultivated to the Far North. Zoned varieties for the Urals and Siberia tolerate lowering the temperature to -20 ° C in the fall and -35 ° C in the winter. Roots withstand frost below -10 ° C.
At the foot of the Altai Mountains and in Siberia, saplings of chokeberry after planting in the fall must be mulched, laid on the ground, covered with earth. It is important to carry out these works at a positive temperature, otherwise the branches become brittle. In the Moscow region and in the central regions of the country it is enough to sprinkle the roots with a layer of mulch. It is not necessary to cover the above-ground part in autumn.
Transplanting chokeberry in autumn
Aronia easily experiences transference to another place, even if the bushes are old enough. If the transplant is carried out correctly and quickly, the bush may not even wilt, but immediately begin to master the new space. In autumn, this procedure is carried out in September - October, while the temperature is stable, above 10 ° C.
When replanting chokeberry in spring or autumn
It is a little easier to transplant a black insect to a new place in the autumn than in the spring. A bush that has become stronger over the summer is more easily restored in new conditions. To speed up the adaptation, you can cut off the shoots to half their length, thin the leaves, which will reduce the load on the roots.
In spring, all the forces of the black chokeberry are aimed at the growth of green mass. Roots can not cope with double load, the plant will slow down in growth. A transplant of black insects in the autumn is considered less traumatic for the bush.
How to transplant a black chop in the fall to a new place
For a successful transplant, you will need to cut as much as possible a lump of earth along with the roots. To do this, choke the mountain ash around the crown around the perimeter to a depth of about 500 cm. Then, cut the soil with shovels, so as to separate the clod from the soil and carefully raise it.
To transport the plant to the place of planting is better dragging it on the burlap in order to preserve the fragment of the earth with its roots as much as possible. A new pit should slightly exceed the size of a coma.
A few tips for transplanting aronia in the fall:
- When transplanting, you can simultaneously feed the bush by adding superphosphate and potash fertilizer (for example, ash) to the pit.
- It is desirable to comply with the same height of the root collar, only slight penetration is allowed (1-2 cm).
- Chokeberry easier to get used to a new place, if you follow the direction of the bush to the cardinal points, as before transplanting.
A strong, well-developed shrub in autumn can be divided and planted several plants in a new place. Chokeberry is easily propagated by dividing the bush. The survival rate "delonok" in the fall - high.
How to feed the black insect in the fall
After fruiting, the culture needs rest and recuperation. Top dressing of chokeberry in the fall allows you to influence the harvest of the next season.
After harvesting, it is useful to charge the soil under each bush of chokeberry, adding 500 g of wood ash and about 200 g of superphosphate. It is good to conduct foliar dressing with a solution of urea (7%). Spraying the branches with a nitrogen compound is not contraindicated in the fall and is the prevention of infections.
During this period it is important not to abuse the nitrogenous fertilizers introduced into the soil. Such supplements in the second half of summer stimulate the growth of the aerial part, shoots "grow fat", they do not ripen the bark. In the autumn fertilize chokeberry nitrogen with nitrogen is not worth it.
It is possible to mulch the soil for the winter with peat or humus, which will be an additional support for the root system.
Preparing for the winter
Chokeberry - cold-resistant culture, in most regions endures winter without special shelters. Additional agrotechnical measures are designed to help chokeberry get out of the winter dormancy strong, quickly grow, and in the fall to give a good crop of useful berries.
Pre-winter care for the black insect:
- Moisturizing. If autumn is dry, chokeberry will require only one, but abundant watering. Under the adult plant contribute from 20 to 40 liters of water, within the crown projection.
- Loosening and mulching retain moisture, provide normal respiration to the roots. A covering layer of 5-10 cm will protect them from freezing in case of changeable weather.
- Spruce spruce branches used as shelter or coniferous mulch scare rodents away.
In the conditions of severe winters, even adult black chokeberry bushes require shelter. Frost-resistant culture is enough to bend down to the ground with an arc of up to 20 cm. For this, wooden shields, heavy tree branches are used. The fallen snow reliably keeps the black-nipple from freezing. If there is little rain, cover the plants with earth or leaves.
How can I propagate black chokeberry in autumn
Aronia can be propagated in several ways:
- layering or offspring;
- cuttings (green or mature);
- division of the bush;
Not all of them are applicable in the fall. Often practiced sowing seeds in open ground. Sprouts that appeared in spring should be grown for several years.
Reproduction of chokeberry by cuttings in the autumn is a way to quickly get good planting material. For rooting in September, cuttings are cut from mature 2-year-old branches, about 15 cm long. Cut stems are planted in a cold greenhouse, leaving several buds above the ground. Rooted cuttings will be ready for planting in a year, in the fall.
Horizontal layers are called black chokeberry branches, bent and pinned to the ground, without separation from the parent plant. After the procedure in the fall, in the spring you can get a good vertical shoot, which is separated from the bush when it reaches 20 cm.
Caring for chokeberry in the fall is not notable for special techniques and is available even for beginners. Sustainable culture gratefully responds to the minimum care, the main thing is to carry out the work correctly and on time. Observance of simple rules allows you to grow a magnificent plant, pleasing the appearance and abundance of useful fruits.