Garden Pansies or Vittrok Violets, cultivated as an annual and biennial plant, used to decorate gardens and indoor areas. The main reproduction is from seeds. At home, violets can be grown from seeds year-round, and in open flowerbeds only in the summer season. There is another name for the Pansies - viola, which in Italian means violet. To avoid confusion when reading our article, we note: Pansies, violet and viola are unambiguous definitions of the same plant. How to grow these flowers from seeds, when to plant, how to achieve abundant flowering: you will get the answers to all these questions by reading the content of our article.
Violets Pansies do not have one generally accepted classification, some botanists share plant species according to the shape and size of a flower, others - according to flowering time or resistance to environmental influences.
The basis of the modern classification is taken the distribution of pansies in flower sizes:
- Super giant violets. The diameter of the flowers reaches 11 centimeters.
- Giant viola. Flower size 9-10 cm.
- Large-flowered eyes (flowers up to 8-9 cm in diameter).
- Mid-flowered violets. Flowers grow from 6 to 8 centimeters.
- Small flower viola. The average size of flowers is 5-6 cm.
All groups are further divided into many varietal subgroups, which are characterized by color and shape of flowers. We will not give here a description of each variety of Pansies, it is simply impossible, their number is in the hundreds, we will only make a description of the main morphological data that combine all the species and varieties of this plant:
- Violet - compact or slightly sprawling annual plant, bush height from 15 to 40 centimeters, grown from seeds;
- the roots of the viola are fibrous, that is, the main root does not have a pronounced priority, there are many root processes that lie down to a depth of no more than 15–20 cm;
- The leaves of the Pansies are dark green (depending on the variety, may have a light green color), alternate, the leaf shape is oval or ovate, tapering at the top, the edges are notched;
- the flowers are of different sizes (see above), the rim is flat with five petals, one lower petal has a special hollow into which pollen is collected, all the other petals are slightly raised upwards, fan-shaped, different in color: monochrome, that is, monochrome, and also two and tricolor;
- fruits - three-chamber seed boxes, the seeds are small, smooth and shiny, length up to 2 mm, seed width - less than 1 mm (see photo below).
Growing from seed
In the video at the end of this page, an experienced grower tells in detail about his method of growing Pansies from seed to seedlings. For those who prefer to read the text, we write further.
Viola seeds begin to sow in February in order to have sufficiently developed seedlings by the time they land on the ground. The resulting plants can be planted in garden pots, in containers on the balcony or in ordinary pots, which are placed in any indoor room. Pansies seedlings are grown from seeds in order to get blooming flowerbeds in the garden as early as possible in order to admire them all summer, and not in early autumn, which can happen if you plant the violets in the ground too late.
The seeds of the Pansies are small (see photo below), working with them will have to work hard. Prepare small skewers or toothpicks, nail tweezers with blunt ends. You will also need a small container with earth or napkins with gauze. It depends on which method of growing from seeds you prefer, with or without a substrate.Attention! Seeds of violets can be stored no more than 2 years. Unscrupulous producers allow themselves to mix in one package old, already expired seeds, with fresh seeds collected last season. Beware of such fakes. The percentage of seed germination depends on the shelf life. Sometimes this figure is below 50%.
The seeds of the Pansies are soaked until the first sprouted sprouts are obtained, or they are planted dry in a moist substrate several in number.
In the ground, the seeds take root, and tiny sprouts with cotyledon leaves rush upwards, this is shown in the photo below. Seeds germinate in 7-10 days.
They can be left in this position until full-grown seedlings sprout, and you can dive into separate pot-pots for each seedling. Another photo below shows the seedlings of Pansies already ready for transplantation into the ground. From sowing violet seeds to getting normal seedlings with a few true leaves, it takes 3 to 4 months. In open ground, seedlings of pansies grown from seeds are transplanted depending on the time of spring warming, in the south this can be done in April-May, in cool areas - in May-June.
Substrate for flowers
Trying to make it easier for gardeners to grow from seeds of different crops: flowers, vegetables, berries and fruits, manufacturers have learned how to produce modern materials that help reduce labor costs for the preparation of substrates. In the shops, you can buy everything for this purpose: peat and coconut tablets, complex earth mixtures designed separately for one plant or another, special containers with lids and all sorts of accessories for such works.
If you don’t have similar specialized stores nearby, and a vegetable garden, as they say "side by side", then in the fall make a supply of garden land, compost, sand and peat. For the time being, they can be stored in a basement or shed. The earth mixture needs to be prepared 2-3 weeks before planting the seeds, bring it into a heated room (in a house or a storage room) and how to warm it up. Violets are not very picky about the composition of the soil, but do not like too acidic or alkaline soils.
A soil mixture of such a composition is suitable for growing from seeds: 1 part of sand, 3 parts of fertile land from a vegetable garden, and 1 part of rotted light compost. All components are thoroughly mixed, remove large debris: twigs, pebbles, large parts of the remaining plants. Start to moisten the soil little by little, closing the container with a lid so that the moisture does not evaporate for a longer time.Tip! Check the acidity of the resulting substrate. This can be done with the help of litmus papers and color determinant, which are sold in a set.
To find out the degree of acidification of the soil, follow the instructions attached to the package.
During the time that the seedling “ripens”, it is necessary to carry out a certain care, it consists of the following:
- in the implementation of regular watering, once a month you need to combine it with a chemical additive to stimulate growth;
- in maintaining a constant temperature, not less than + 25 ° C;
- in maintaining the humidity of the air, spraying the plants with warm water if necessary;
- in additional lighting, if the days are still short (in the first month after sowing, round-the-clock lighting is needed).
2-3 weeks before planting in the ground, when daytime temperatures allow it to be done, seedlings of the Pansies are hardened, carrying containers out onto the street or on balconies for 1-3 hours. Start from 30 minutes, gradually adding time, bring it up to 4 hours. On the glazed loggias, you can begin hardening in March, and in April-May, if it was planned, transplanted into boxes and left for the whole summer. Pansies will begin to bloom earlier if it is the southern or eastern side of the street.
Ready seedlings of violets grown from seeds are planted in the ground in mid-May. At this time of the year, townspeople often observe how landscapers decorate city beds in parks and gardens, plant bulbs of tulips, daffodils, seedlings of petunias and violets. A month later, their wild flowering begins, the summer season opens, the cities are transformed, finding a colorful outfit. Gardeners also rush to their dacha plots in order to have time to land the "podospevshuyu" seedlings of pansies and other flowers.
For beginner gardeners, we recommend several rules for proper planting of seedlings of violets grown from seeds in open ground:
- Choose a place for landing viola in advance. This should be a lighted place away from tall plants, perhaps a separate garden pot, a small flowerbed, or a section near the paths, an alpine slide.
- The soil is required to be fertile and light, with a neutral pH, loose and clean from weeds.
- Mark the ground, make small pits for seedlings with a depth of 15-25 cm. You can choose the distance between the seedlings on your own, take into account the density of plantings and the future growth of bushes, you want thicker - plant more often.
- Pour water over the wells when it is completely absorbed, with one hand spread the wet soil with a shovel, and with the other, drown the roots of the seedling of the Pansies in this crevice. While holding the sprout, carefully remove the spatula.
- Also gently, protecting the fragile seedling from damage, sprinkle the surface of the hole with compost or peat (layer thickness of 10-15 centimeters).
- Lightly pull the seedling by the leaf, it should not be pulled out of the ground. If, nevertheless, it remains in your hand, repeat it all over again. Gradually, you will learn to do it right.
- We planted seedlings grown from seeds, now we need the usual care for flowers and sparse dressing, water them once a month with complex fertilizers diluted in water. Learn the dosage from the instructions on the package.
Flower growers say that Pansies are very sensitive to care, the more love and care you give to the plant, the longer and more abundant they will bloom.Caution! Seeds of violets are not recommended to be planted in the ground before winter. Any sudden drop in temperature is detrimental to them. In the spring you can get rare and unfriendly shoots, that is, it is somewhere empty, but somewhere dense.
Look at the photo below. This is how wonderful floral ornaments with pansies grown from seeds should look.
Biennial species of violets give seeds only in the second year. You can collect these seeds yourself. To do this, in the first year (July-August) sowing the seeds of the viola are available in the soil. At the end of September or October, seedlings are dug (the plant does not bloom this season) along with a clod of earth. Store in the winter in not heated room: in the basement, shed, cold storeroom. In early May, planted as ordinary seedlings. In the autumn at the end of flowering, the viola forms seed pods, in which there are a lot of fresh seeds, flower growers pick them up, put them to dry and ripen. Thus obtained seeds can be planted on seedlings at home as well as purchased.
Being engaged in the cultivation of flowers, we give their beauty not only to others, but first of all we get pleasure and satisfaction. These feelings help us in life. Love flowers, they are our friends.