Sage in Latin is called Salvia, it is under this name in Russia that they know the ornamental variety of this plant. Salvias appeared in Europe several centuries ago; they belong to the family of Lambs and exist as perennials in nature. In order to avoid confusion, it is customary to divide the plants of this species into two groups and call only medicinal species as sage, and decorative as salvia. In the cultivation of perennial salvia in a temperate climate has its own characteristics, because this plant has a tropical origin. Despite the increased love of the plant for heat and the sun, hundreds of species of sage culture can seamlessly exist in flower beds and flower beds of the northern country.
Photos of perennial Salvia flowers, a description of popular varieties can be found in this article. Here it will be told about the seedlings of this plant and about when and how it should be planted, how to care for flowers, what to do with salvia in winter.
Description of the species
Medical sage known since the days of ancient Rome. There are many varieties of this plant, each of which has its own healing properties and is widely used in medicine.
The ornamental salvia has inflorescences larger, the color of the flowers is brighter and more varied, therefore it is the custom to decorate personal plots, parks and gardens with such varieties.
As a species, Salvia and Salvia officinalis have a lot of similar qualities:
- plant type - spongy, rhizomatous, herbaceous;
- the stem of Salvia is erect, ascending, has a tetrahedral cross-section;
- the height of the stems, depending on the variety of sage, can vary from 20 cm to 1.5 meters;
- leaves of elongated form, whole, arranged in pairs - oppositely;
- the upper part of the leaf plate is green and the lower one has a whitish color;
- core-type root system, powerful, with a multitude of lateral thin roots;
- individual flowers are small, but collected in large spike-shaped inflorescences;
- the length of the inflorescence usually exceeds 20 cm and can reach 50 cm;
- each spikelet inflorescence there are up to 90 single flowers;
- the traditional color of salvia is red, but selection does not stand still, and today there is a decorative sage of pink, violet, orange and lilac shades;
- heat-loving plant, all types of salvia do not tolerate frosts;
- sage is unpretentious, does not require complex care;
- flower loves the sun and loose nutrient soils.
Attention! Sage is a perennial, but Salvia is of several types: annual, biennial, and perennial.
Perennial decorative sage
In nature, sage grows on all continents of the Earth, except Australia, but this plant comes from subtropics and tropics.
Depending on the climate in which salvia was born, it is common to divide all its varieties into three large groups:
- Subtropical species, accustomed to heat and sun, therefore, absolutely not tolerate frost and low temperatures. Subtropical salvia in Russia can only be grown as an annual.
- Mediterranean sage is more resistant to cold and the vagaries of the weather, but it also does not tolerate sub-zero temperatures. Such a salvia in a temperate climate can be grown as a biennial plant, but for the winter flowers should be covered or brought in heat.
- Salvia perennial - the most resistant to cold type. In regions with snowy or mild winters, the flower does not even need to be covered. Sage will delight with its bright colors for several seasons, and it will begin to bloom from the second year after planting.
Important! In this article, it will be described in detail exactly the varieties of Salvia of many years that are most suitable for the country's climate.
This group includes meadow and forest varieties of sage, with medicinal or spicy properties. In height, such flowers usually grow to a maximum of 70 cm. Flowers are not afraid of cold and shade.
Not all types of medicinal sage are decorative, but the most beautiful of them consider:
- variety Nectar, growing to a meter height, having pubescent leaves and large inflorescences of purple or celestial shade;
- Semko Patriarchal has long pointed leaves, and the maximum height of the bushes is 0.7 meters;
- The breeze is more compact - only 60 cm in height, has leaves with a serrate edge and inflorescences of azure shade;
- Aibolit is pleased with the huge size of the bush - up to 120 cm, has large wrinkled leaves and bright flowers;
- The Blue Queen belongs to forest species, her inflorescences are colored blue (there is a Pink Queen variety, respectively, with pink-colored inflorescences);
- Plumosa is considered to be an oak sage, and this species is very resistant to cold, the flowers are painted in a rich lavender shade;
- Alba refers to the whorled mind of a sage medicinal, it blooms in white.
Each of the varieties of medicinal sage is not only beautiful in appearance, but also has its own healing properties: one can stop bleeding, the other relieves inflammation or pain, and a decoction from the third has a beneficial effect on internal organs. And there are spicy types of sage used in cooking and various beverages.
Perennial salvia from the Mediterranean are well tolerated by the cold, they can grow in the most arid regions, they almost do not need to be cared for. But the harsh Russian winters cannot render this kind of decorative sage. Therefore, in temperate climates, Mediterranean varieties are most often grown as biennials — they reliably cover flowers for the winter or carry them into the house.Attention! Decorative Mediterranean varieties have no medicinal properties - these flowers are needed only for decoration.
Horminum - green or variegated variety
Salvia Horminum is a decorative variety with colored flower buds, whorled buds of various shades. The height of the flower is 40-60 cm, the bush is spreading, well leafy, thick.
Stems from Khoruminum spicy, they are covered with a small fluff. Leaves are elongated, oval, pubescent. Inflorescence is a false whorl consisting of 4-6 pink flowers. Bracts look brighter and may have a different color: from pink and bright pink to saturated purple.
Popular varieties of Mediterranean salvia are perennial:
- White swan with purple or pink bracts;
- Oxford Blue with unusual blue flowers;
- Pink Sandy is a salvia with bright pink hue bracts.
Tuft salvia has straight stems, growing to 30-40 cm. The leaves have long petioles, they, like the stems, are densely pubescent. Inflorescences are collected in dense whitish spikelets of the type, each of which has from five to thirty flowers.
Hue of inflorescences in whorled salvia is usually purple or lilac-blue. == The most popular type is Purple Rain, which has purple petioles and bright purple corolla. ==
The stem of this species is straight and poorly branched. The plant is herbaceous, all parts exude a strong spicy aroma. The leaves are pinnate, strongly dissected, collected in root rosettes. The lower part of the sheet is pubescent; on the outside, the surface of the sheet plate is glossy.
Mutovye inflorescences, reaching 30 cm. Corollas of flowers of light pink, a pharynx greenish in purple specks.
The third group includes the most stable varieties of salvia, which even in Russia can be grown as perennials. These flowers are not afraid of frost, can winter without shelter (provided that the winter is snowy), grow well in the shade and in partial shade, undemanding in care.
Attention! When compiling a flower bed with perennial salvia, it is necessary to take into account the fact that it will begin to bloom only in the second year after planting.
Ferrous or sticky sage
This flower grows everywhere on the territory of Russia, as it is probably the most adapted to the climate of this country. The height of the bushes can reach 90 cm, the stems are pubescent, glandular.
The leaf shape is ovate-triangular, the leaves are painted in a yellowish-green tint, have serrated edges and are covered with fuzz. The inflorescences of Salvia are loose, have a yellowish tint and the shape of a whorl.
Salvia Superba is often called lush salvia. This flower grows to a maximum of sixty centimeters, has inflorescences, collected in spikelets and painted in rich lavender color.
Popular varieties of salvia:
- Snow Hill - perennial Salvia with snow-white large inflorescences;
- Blue Queen pleases compact low bushes and very bright blue-violet flowers;
- Rose Quinn is also a “dwarf”, very compact, having pink-tinged flowers.
The third, persistent perennial species also includes meadow salvia and Ethiopian salvia, but they are less commonly grown on the territory of the country.
Perennial species of salvia can multiply by seeds, seedlings, cuttings and layering. Seeds are the fruit of flowering sage and are in boxes, from which it falls very easily to the ground. At the end of winter, seedlings begin to be grown — sage seeds are not planted with seeds due to the long growing season.
Tip! To collect sage seeds, you need to cut a spikelet before it is completely dry. Dry the flowers in cardboard boxes, then collect the seeds.
Until the end of summer, salvia can be propagated by semi-lumbering cuttings. Cuttings need to be cut at a height of about 15 cm and put into the water or in loose nutrient soil. After two weeks, the roots should appear, after another 10-15 days, salvia can be planted in a permanent place.
Air layouts are also a great breeding method. They are simply pinned to the ground and in the next year they separate the rooted bush from the mother plant.
Cultivation and care
Sowing seeds for seedlings carried out in February, because by the time of transplantation into the ground should be at least two months. Salvia seedlings are very weak, so all work with it is carried out with great care.
Much easier to propagate flowers by cuttings or layering. Thermophilous sage is transferred to the soil for a permanent place not earlier than May - the weather should stabilize and the earth should warm up.
Caring for salvia is simple, it needs:
- watering with warm water;
- loosening the soil or mulching;
- formative pruning (for perennial species);
- top dressing complex mineral fertilizers.
Attention! If the region is dominated by frosty and snowless winters, salvia bushes should be covered. Any nonwoven material, polyethylene, sawdust, spruce, a thick layer of mulch will do for this.
Photo bright salvia does not leave indifferent - just want to start such a miracle in your own garden. When choosing a variety of sage, it is worth considering the particular climate in a particular region. Best of all in the middle zone showed themselves perennial varieties of salvia, able to withstand even frost.