Summer garlic is a common mushroom that is valued for its good taste and healthy properties. He has dangerous false counterparts, so it is important to know their distinguishing features.
Summer mushrooms, their description and photo
Summer mushroom mushroom is an edible representative of the Strofariyev family. It grows in dense groups on dead wood. There are several varieties of this mushroom, which differ in appearance.
Types of honey agaric
The main varieties of experience:
- Summer. It grows colonies on damaged wood. Known under the names of honeydew lime, kuneromitses changeable and govorushka. It has good taste, it is grown on an industrial scale.
- Autumn (real). Edible mushroom growing on stumps, fallen and living trees. The height of the leg is 8-10 cm, the diameter is up to 2 cm. The hat, 3-15 cm in size, of a convex shape, gradually becomes flattened. The stem has a pronounced white ring. The flesh is white, firm and fragrant. Fruiting occurs in layers, each lasts 2-3 weeks.
- Winter. Edible fungus, parasitic on dead wood, often on willow and poplar. The leg is 2–7 cm high, the hat is 2–10 cm in size. It does not have the “skirt” on the leg, which is characteristic of the majority. It grows from autumn to spring in the forest park strip.
- Meadow. Prefers forest glades, meadows, ravines, roadsides. It has a convex cap and a thin leg up to 10 cm long. It grows from May to October.
- Tolstonogy. Occurs in fallen leaves, on fallen spruce, beech, fir and ash. It has a low straight leg, thickened near the base. The size of the cap is from 2.5 to 10 cm. In young specimens it has the shape of an extended cone with frequent plates.
What are the summer mushrooms
Description of the summer course:
- the convex shape of the cap in young mushrooms, as it grows, becomes flat with a wide tubercle in the central part;
- cap diameter 3-6 cm;
- in dry weather, it has a matt yellow-brown color;
- at high humidity hat acquires a brown color;
- there are beards along the edges, the skin is smooth and covered with mucus;
- chymenophore summer barley plate, light or dark color;
- leg height - up to 7 cm, diameter - 0.5 cm;
- its consistency is dense, the color is light above and dark below;
- in young mushrooms, the remains of a veil in the form of a thin ring are visible;
- the flesh of the cap is thin and watery, in the leg the flesh is darker and more dense.
In the photo you can see how summer mushrooms look like:
Are summer mushrooms edible?
Mushrooms are edible, but they are eaten only after heat treatment. First, they are soaked for half an hour, remove dirt, damaged areas and cut them into pieces. Be sure to throw out worms.
For primary processing, fruit bodies are placed in boiling water. The minimum cooking time is 20 minutes.Important! Mushrooms are a perishable product. It is recommended to process them within 24 hours after collection.
The composition of honey agarics includes vitamins B, PP, C and E, trace elements (potassium, phosphorus, iron), fiber, amino acids, proteins. The product has a positive effect on the work of the heart and metabolism, slows the development of cancer cells.
Nutritional value per 100 g of product:
- caloric content - 22 kcal;
- proteins - 2.2 g;
- fats - 1.2 g;
- carbohydrates - 0.5 g;
- dietary fiber - 5.1 g.
The composition of mushrooms is influenced by the ecological situation in the region. They absorb trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides and salts of heavy metals (mercury, cadmium, copper, lead, etc.) from the external environment. With this exposure, the fruit body becomes toxic and can be lethal when consumed.
When does the mushroom season begin
Summer mushrooms occur from April to November. In coastal and other areas with mild winters grow year-round. Most of them are found in regions with a humid climate.
Going for mushrooms is better early in the morning in light clothes or shoes. The leg is cut with a knife at ground level. You can take a navigator and a stick with a length of up to 1 m.
Where can you collect summer mushrooms
Mushrooms are found in shady areas with high humidity. It is better to collect them in ecologically clean areas.
Summer species prefer decaying or live hardwood, less often coniferous. They are found in deciduous and mixed forests of the temperate zone.Attention! You can not collect mushrooms near the highway, highways, railways, airfields, high-voltage wires, landfills, agricultural land, working factories and plants.
It is not recommended to eat mushrooms growing within megalopolises: in parks, squares, forest belts. To find them, it’s better to leave at least 1 km from the motorways.
The harvested mushrooms are frozen for the winter, raw or after heat treatment. They are added to first courses, side dishes and snacks. Mushrooms can be pickled, pickled, boiled, dried, fried and stewed.
Dangerous doubles summer summers with the name and photo
Edible mushrooms have many doubles. Outwardly, these mushrooms are very similar. On closer inspection, summer mushrooms can be distinguished from their dangerous counterpart.
How to distinguish the gallery fringed from the summer meadow
Galerina bordered is a deadly mushroom. Its shape and color are identical to edible mushrooms. Galerina meets from early August to late autumn.
Features gallery fringed:
- flakes on the cap and pedicle are completely absent (they must be present in edible mushrooms);
- hemispherical cap (in young adults it is more often asymmetrical, but as it grows it gets a more regular shape);
- uniform reddish color of the cap (the center of the cap is darker, there is a yellow ring around it, and a dark border around the edges);
- flour smell of pulp;
- more common in coniferous forests;
- growing alone or 2-3 pcs.
When ingested galera leads to disruption of the liver and can cause death. The hardest thing to distinguish between galerin edged and summer shade, when the mushrooms have outgrown.
False insects are a group of mushrooms imitating edible mushrooms. The twins have plate-shaped caps 5–7 cm in size and a leg 10 cm long. False insects grow on rotted trees.
Varieties of mock snakes:
- Gray yellow. Poisonous grayish-brown foamstone with a yellow tinge. The central part of the cap is darker. The plates on the back of the cap have a greenish color.
- Seroplastin. In young specimens, the cap is hemispherical in shape, eventually flattening. The color of false summer mushrooms changes from yellowish to brown depending on the level of humidity.
- Brick red. A large foam mill with a cap diameter of more than 10 cm. It is reddish in color, with a dark center, and the leg is pale yellow.
- Watery. Young mushrooms have a bell-shaped cap, which thickens as they grow. Color depends on the level of humidity and varies from cream to bright brown. The leg is pale in color. False foam grows from June to October.
Distinguished summer mushrooms from false can be by the presence of edible mushrooms ring on the leg, dim cap, beige or yellowish plates. Poisonous specimens have an unpleasant odor, resembling mold or wet earth. When in contact with water, the specimens will turn blue or black.
Flake scabbling is a rare mushroom, edible, but without taste and nutritional value.
Scaly - medium or large sized agaric. In young specimens, the cap is hemispherical, in the old specimens - flat spreading. The fruit body is always completely covered with scales. Leg 3-6 cm long, rigid and fibrous.
The mushroom is considered conditionally edible. The taste and nutritional value are low. A psatirella has a yellow or brown cap with a tubercle and cracked edges.
Young mushrooms have an upper part in the form of a bell, which eventually becomes flat. The surface of the cap is smooth and dry.
Leg height from 3 to 11 cm, hollow, curved, with a mealy coating. The plates are beige, gradually changing color to brown. The flesh is brown, odorless, bitter in taste.
Is it possible to grow summer mushrooms on the plot?
Mushrooms are grown on the plot, they successfully grow at home on sawdust or husk from seeds.
Mycelium is obtained independently by grinding the caps of mushrooms. It can be purchased ready for planting.
In April or May, the mycelium is colonized in growing stumps or felled trees, and then watered regularly. Stimulating the growth of fungi helps maintain a constant temperature (from +15 to + 20 ° C). Logs are kept in the basement or cellar.
When the mycelium begins to grow, the wood is transferred to the site and partially buried in the ground. For the cultivation of honey agaric suitable greenhouse or any darkened piece of land.
In the first year mycelium gives a low yield. Fruiting begins in June and depends on the quality of wood and climatic conditions. Under favorable circumstances, next year the yield increases 4 times. Mushrooms from one mushroom spawn are harvested for 4-6 years.
Summer garlic is a tasty and healthy mushroom. When collecting honey mushrooms, it is important to distinguish them from dangerous twins. Harvested mushrooms are cleaned and cooked.