It is difficult to imagine a more famous domestic potato variety than Yermak, because at one time it, along with many Dutch varieties, was recognized worldwide. But precisely for this reason, this variety was overgrown with an incredible number of legends, rumors, and popular names, some of which have nothing to do with reality.
History of origin
Initially, in the middle of the 70s of the last century, potato breeders of the Omsk Agrarian Research Center bred potatoes called Yermak using the clonal selection method Early Rose. During the tests, a new variety of this potato called Yermak improved was selected and obtained. It was under this name that this variety was included in 1978 in the State Register of Russia. Although experts recommend Yermak potatoes for cultivation, primarily in the West Siberian District, but this variety has successfully spread at one time and won not only the whole of Russia, but also the near abroad. True, he was later ousted from the gardens of the variety of foreign selection, which many gardeners still regret.
Much later, in the 21st century, he was nicknamed Laptem from the light hand of an unknown gardener who received tubers of this potato variety of unprecedented size. And in recent years, the variety Yermak received a new wave of recognition and often spread among gardeners under the folk name Lapot. And many do not even suspect that the long-known variety of Siberian breeding Yermak under this name is acquired.
Description and characteristics
Yermak potato bushes are upright, the stems branch rather weakly. The corollas of flowers are very beautiful - painted in a pale red-violet color.
Yes, and tubers differ pinkish skin color. The eyes of small size, on their smooth peel is not very much.
The flesh is white at the cut, sometimes reddish inclusions may be found around the eyes. When cutting and cooking does not darken.Attention! The starch content in Yermak potato tubers is from 10 to 12%. Tubers do not boil soft during cooking and keep their shape well.
Tubers have large sizes from 90 to 120 grams each and an oval-rounded shape. At the same time in each potato bush forms from 8 to 20 tubers. In addition, the tubers of this variety have a fairly high marketability, which means the percentage of marketable tubers to all others grown on a bush. Marketability is about 88-90%.
Therefore, the Ermak potato variety is considered to be high-yielding - from one bush it is possible to gather from one to two kilograms of tasty tubers.
On an industrial scale of cultivation, where yield is measured in tons per hectare, this value is 35-47 t / ha.
Potato variety Yermak can be safely attributed to early maturing - the tubers ripen already at 70-90 days after the first shoots.
At the same time, potatoes are stored very well, especially for such early ripening periods. The percentage of preservation is 94%.
The taste qualities of the Yermak potato are recognized by most experts as excellent - the potato is really very tasty, which is important compared to many modern varieties, especially of imported origin. The purpose of the variety is table, its use is universal - from the Ermak tubers it turns out delicious vegetable salads, it is suitable for frying and for roasting.Comment! From the tubers of this variety are excellent potato chips and french fries.
Yermak variety shows moderate resistance to the main potato scourge - scab, as well as to most fungal, bacterial and viral diseases. But the resistance to potato cancer is very low.
But the variety Ermak tolerates heat well, and responds with large yields to regular fertilizing and irrigation.
Advantages and disadvantages
The potato variety Ermak has the following advantages and disadvantages.
Low cancer resistance
Medium susceptibility to diseases - needs protection
Good preservation of tubers
Responsiveness to watering and feeding
Resistance to mechanical damage
When planting early varieties of potatoes, it is especially important to pay attention to the preplant treatment of tubers, since it allows you to get a crop in the earliest terms.
One of the main methods of such preparation is the vernalization of tubers - their greening in the light and in relative heat. It usually starts a month before landing. Yermak potato tubers are laid out in boxes on plastic wrap in a bright and relatively warm room. You can use the veranda or non-freezing balcony. Tubers are regularly sprayed to maintain moisture and even fouling with strong shoots.
Vernalization helps to get an earlier and high-quality crop, but the most important thing is to reject sick and weak tubers with filamentous sprouts.
Tip! The easiest way to select healthy, virus-free potato tubers at home is to immerse them in a concentrated salt solution for a minute (0.5 kg per 10-liter bucket).
Tubers that float during this procedure are rejected. But after this procedure, healthy potatoes should definitely be washed under running water.
The plot for planting potatoes is removed after growing onions, garlic, peas, and pumpkin crops on it. If you are disturbed by a wireworm or nematode on your site, then the best way to get rid of them is to sow oats or rye immediately after harvest. And in the spring, clearing the place of straw, plant potatoes in this soil.
Given that Yermak potatoes have early ripening, it makes sense to plant it as soon as possible. In the conditions of the middle band it is best to meet the first ten days of May. In the southern regions planting potatoes can be made a month earlier. In the Urals and Siberia, the dates may move a week later. The main thing is that the soil managed to warm up to a temperature of + 8 ° + 10 ° С.Attention! The best time for planting potatoes to coordinate with natural signs - if the birch trees were covered with a barely noticeable "greenish haze" of foliage, then it's time!
Planting potatoes Yermak best two-row method. That is, two rows with a distance of 50-60 cm make up a strip. Between strips make gaps of 90-100 cm. And the tubers themselves in each row are laid out in 10-15 cm (small) and 18-20 cm (large).
Caring for potato varieties Yermak fundamentally no different from the care of other varieties of potatoes: watering, feeding, hilling and protection from pests and diseases.
This potato variety is especially susceptible to additional irrigation, it demonstrates maximum yields under these conditions. Watering is especially important during germination of tubers, at the time of the first hilling and during the flowering of potatoes. If during these periods there is arid weather without rain, then it is highly desirable to provide additional artificial irrigation to the Yermak potato plantings.
Hilling and feeding
Hilling in the care of potatoes is of paramount importance for three reasons:
- It helps to remove weeds.
- Helps loosen and oxygenate the upper layers of the soil.
- Contributes to the retention of soil moisture.
The larger the potato bush, the higher the height should be. On average, bushes need to sprinkle with earth or organic materials on a third of their height.
The first hilling is carried out traditionally when sprouts reach a height of 15-20 cm only the next day after a good rain. Only in this case it will make sense. Otherwise, planting potatoes plentifully spill and only then spud.
The second hilling spend ten days before flowering, while the bushes are not closed between the rows.
It is more profitable to combine feeding Ermak potato with irrigation if you have a small plantation. The most optimal feedings are the infusion of manure and chicken manure with the addition of wood ash. You can also use herbal cocktail - pour a mixture of any weed herbs with a double portion of water, add a little litter, ash and insist a week before the appearance of a specific smell.
Diseases and pests
The main diseases of potato are late blight and scab. As a preventive measure, before flowering and after spraying planting potatoes with a solution of Fitosporin or a mixture of Alirin and Gamair.
Bushes infected with viruses are usually distinguished by small curly and twisted foliage with light spots. At the same time, their growth is strongly inhibited. When digging, they need to be separated - the tops must be burned, and the tubers may be allowed for animal feed. The drugs for treating viruses have not yet been invented.
To combat the Colorado potato beetle, first of all it is good to use biological preparations: Fitoverm and Agravertin.
With a large number of them, heavy artillery can be used - systemic insecticides - Aktar, Konfidor, Mospilan.
Due to their early ripening, potatoes Yermak are most often used for summer consumption. Tubers can begin to dig for food within two weeks after flowering. But since it is kept well, it is recommended to bring part of the harvest to full maturity. This happens about a month after flowering, when the tops of the tree begin to turn yellow and dry.
Potatoes Yermak is one of the most sought-after domestic potato varieties. Some time ago the variety was almost lost due to total virus infection - the nursery in the Irtysh area was closed, where it was produced. But through the efforts of enthusiasts from the people, the variety continues to live, even under different names.
For many gardeners, the Yermak potato variety is associated almost with the best potato of domestic production.Elena, 45, Ulyanovsk. We in our family tried many varieties of potatoes. At one time it was very fashionable to grow Dutch varieties. But all the time I remember the old variety of potatoes called Yermak, in which individual tubers grew almost 1 kg in weight. I didn't like him very much then - it was not very convenient to clean it. And now I regret very much that we did not save it - here it was a potato - both large and fruitful and tasty! Nikolay, 52, Tambov I read many laudatory reviews about Yermak potato, now in subscription journals it often goes by the name Lapot Apparently, a good grade, but I got to plant tubers infected with viruses, and had to completely remove it from my site. Olga, 48 years old, Novosibirsk region In the area of potatoes we are better than Yermak, simply not to be found. It gives equally good yields in cold and hot summer. Tubers of this variety are large, beautiful and very tasty. Of these, you can cook and excellent Zherekha, and bake in the oven. And the kids still love my homemade potato chips.