Tomatoes are one of the most sought after crops in garden plots. The planting of these plants in the suburbs has its own characteristics. Dates are dependent on weather conditions and the method of landing: in open ground, greenhouse or greenhouse.
Regardless of the method chosen, it is required to provide the necessary conditions for the tomatoes. Then the plants will be able to grow and bring the maximum yield.
How to choose a place for tomatoes
Tomatoes prefer an abundance of heat and sunlight. This should be considered when choosing a bed. Tomatoes do not tolerate wind loads, and frost can kill the plant.
Attention! For planting is selected solar plot, preferably on a hill. Tomatoes need coverage for 6 hours a day.
Tomatoes feel good in places where cabbage, onions, carrots or leguminous plants used to grow. If last year potatoes were growing on the garden or eggplants, then you should pick up another section. To repeat the planting of tomatoes in the same place is allowed only after three years.
Soil preparation for planting
Tomatoes are planted in light ground. If the soil is heavy, then it must first be fertilized. As a top dressing suitable humus and special fertilizers for tomatoes. Manure should be carefully added to the soil. Its excess causes active leaf growth, which has a negative effect on fruiting.
It is best to prepare the soil for tomatoes in the fall. Soil need to dig, then fertilize. Immediately before planting, it is enough to loosen it and level it.Attention! Tomatoes prefer acidic soil. To increase the acidity, lime is added to the soil. To reduce this figure, use sulfates.
The soil for tomatoes is prepared from the soil, humus and compost, which are taken in equal proportions. In the resulting mixture, you can add superphosphate or ash. The soil should remain loose and heated.
In the spring, the soil is dug up several times. At this stage minerals and humus are added again. Fertilizer is poured into the wells before planting. With proper soil preparation, the plant takes root faster.Important! For the prevention of disease, you can add to the soil solution with disinfectants, such as Fitosporin.
In greenhouses, the soil quickly loses its properties. After harvesting, its layer is removed to a depth of 0.4 m. Then a layer of broken branches and sawdust is formed. After that, a layer of peat is laid, after which fertile soil is poured.
Preparation of seedlings should begin 2 months before its disembarkation. Seeds of tomatoes begin to germinate in mid-February - early March.
To ensure seed germination, the ambient temperature should be 12 ° C at night and 20 ° C during the day. Additionally, artificial light is provided with a fluorescent lamp.
Plants are selected for planting that have flown in large numbers during the week. Every 10 days, the seedlings are fed by humus. For watering is used melt or boiled water, which is sprayed from a spray bottle.
Landing in the greenhouse
After preparing the soil in the greenhouse after a week and a half, you can begin planting tomatoes. In the greenhouse, beds of the following sizes are formed:
- between low plants - from 40 cm;
- between average - up to 25 cm;
- between high - up to 50 cm;
- between the rows - up to 0.5 m.
The distance between rows is determined by the size of the greenhouse. It is better to leave space between the tomatoes so that their leaves do not interfere with each other in the process of growth.Attention! In the suburbs in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate, tomatoes are planted in late April. Its design retains heat even with strong frosts.
In the greenhouse should form a favorable microclimate. Tomatoes prefer air temperature within 20-25 ° C. The soil should reach a temperature of 14 ° C.
The order of planting tomatoes is as follows:
- For 5 days, the soil is treated with boric solution.
- For 2 days, the leaves of plants located at the roots are cut.
- Wells are prepared with dimensions of about 15 cm (for short growing varieties) or 30 cm (for tall plants).
- Tomatoes are removed from the containers with a clod of earth and transplanted into the hole.
- The plant is covered with soil before the leaves start to grow.
- The soil under the tomatoes is compacted and mulched with peat or humus.
Landing in the greenhouse
Unlike a greenhouse, a greenhouse has a simpler design. It provides heat due to the decomposition of organic fertilizer (compost or manure). In the process of decay, the soil in the greenhouse is heated and the required temperature is ensured.
The term of planting tomatoes in the greenhouse depends on the temperature of the soil. Additionally takes into account the duration of the process of decomposition of organic matter. For this, the air temperature should be set at 10-15 ° C.Attention! In the greenhouse, tomatoes are planted later than in the greenhouse.
Much depends on the season: how early spring came and the air managed to warm up. This usually happens by early May.
The process of planting tomatoes in a greenhouse includes a certain sequence of steps:
- A week before the start of work, the soil is being prepared.
- Wells are made in sizes up to 30 cm.
- Tomatoes are planted in wells with preservation of the root system.
- The land around the plants is compacted.
- Produced watering each seedling.
Tomatoes are planted in a greenhouse with the following distances:
- height - up to 40 cm;
- width - up to 90 cm;
- the distance between the walls of the greenhouse and the bed - 40 cm;
- the distance between the rows is 60 cm.
Usually a greenhouse contains one or two rows of tomatoes. A special film or woven material is used as a covering material. After establishing a stable temperature, the need for additional shelter of tomatoes disappears.
Landing in open ground
To the open areas in the suburbs tomatoes can be planted when the soil temperature reaches at least 14 ° C. Typically, the soil warms up in the second half of May, but these dates may move depending on the season.
Attention! Planting tomatoes is carried out in parts. Between plantings should take about 5-7 days.
For work chosen cloudy day. Under the hot sunshine the plant will be harder to settle down. If clouds are not foreseen, then the planted tomatoes should be additionally protected from the sun.
The procedure for planting tomatoes in open ground is as follows:
- In the soil holes are made to a depth of 12 cm.
- Compost, humus, and mineral fertilizers are introduced into the obtained cavities.
- Landing plentifully watered.
- Seedlings are taken from the tank, keeping a clod of soil on the roots, and placed in the wells.
- Tomatoes sprinkled with earth to the leaves.
If the seedlings have a height of up to 0.4 m, then the plant is placed directly. If the tomatoes are overgrown, they are laid at an angle of 45 °. This will allow the plant to form additional roots and ensure the flow of nutrients.
The distance between the holes depends on the variety of tomatoes:
- between stunted plants leave 35 cm;
- between medium and tall tomatoes requires 50 cm.
The landing is done in rows or in a staggered manner. There are no restrictions.
To protect the tomatoes from frost, at night you can cover them with a film or covering material. This is done immediately after planting, when the plant is not yet strong. Further, the need for additional shelter is eliminated.
Tomato care after planting
When the tomatoes are planted, they need to ensure proper care. Immediately after placing the plants in the soil they are watered. Loosening, dressing, removing stepsons and garter are performed as the tomatoes grow. Be sure to ensure timely watering of plants.
Loosening and hilling
Due to loosening, air exchange in the soil will be expelled and moisture absorption will be improved. The procedure is carried out to a depth of several centimeters, so as not to damage the roots of a tomato.
Hilling is carried out during flowering and fruiting. As a result, additional roots appear, providing an influx of nutrients. Hay or peat can be laid on the surface of the soil, which will protect the tomatoes before overheating in the heat.
Stepson removal and garter
Side shoots or stepchildren, which are formed on the trunk of a tomato, take away his life-giving powers.
Therefore, periodically they need to be removed. To do this, it is not recommended to use the improvised tool, it is enough to break the excess shoots.
Low-growing varieties of tomatoes do not require a garter. For higher plants, support is made in the form of a special grid or pegs. Tomatoes are tied up under the first ovary so as not to damage it.
Watering and feeding
Tomatoes watered immediately after planting. Then a break is made for 7 days. This rule is violated if the weather is hot.
Watering need tomatoes under the root of warm water. It is best to leave watering in the evening. At the same time, it is not allowed to get moisture on the leaves of tomatoes. The procedure is often carried out in conjunction with dressing. To do this, organic or mineral fertilizer (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) is diluted in water.
Tomatoes require special conditions that must be considered when planting. In which month to carry out landing work, depends largely on weather conditions. First of all, the planting of tomatoes in the greenhouse and greenhouse. Planting plants in open ground is allowed only with sufficient warming of the air. Further growth of tomatoes depends on their proper watering, pruning and feeding.