Grapes - a southern plant, therefore loves heat and sunlight. The local climate is not very suitable for heat-loving culture, so special attention should be paid to such important points as proper planting, care and shelter of the vine for the winter. in the autumn “> Planting time for grapes each gardener determines on his own, but most experienced growers claim that it is better to do this in the fall.
What are the advantages of planting in the fall, as well as how to plant grapes on the site in the fall - these issues will be addressed in the article.
When is it best to plant grapes: autumn or spring
Many experts recommend planting grapes in the spring for the sole reason that the plant will have more time for development and rooting before the harsh winter. However, practice shows that the problem of freezing seedlings is easily solved by a reliable shelter and a deeper planting.
Autumn planting of saplings has a number of advantages:
- In autumn, the ground is more humid, which is very important for young seedlings that need to take root. In summer, the grower will have to water the young plants weekly so that they do not dry out.
- Properly submerged seedlings do not freeze through in winter, because their roots are more than half a meter from the surface of the earth. But the grape seedlings planted in the autumn season will be tempered, subsequently the vine will be able to withstand frosts more than -20 degrees.
- The autumn grapes will wake up earlier, and in the spring they will start up new shoots - the development of such seedlings is faster than those that have been planted since spring.
- Various exhibitions and fairs, where they sell valuable grape varieties, are held in the fall. The gardener will have a great opportunity to choose the right variety from a wide range.
When planting grapes in the fall, each owner decides on his own. Most summer residents do it from mid-October until the start of severe frosts. The general rule is: until this winter frost should remain at least 10 days for the grapes to take root in a new place.
How to plant grapes in autumn
Usually in the fall they plant grape seedlings with a well-developed root system and several buds. The planting itself is practically no different from the spring one, the only thing is that the grapes will need to be well warmed and finished watering 10-14 days before the expected frosts.
Attention! In order for the vine to start fruiting as early as possible, you need to choose the right variety suitable for growing in a particular region.
Where to plant grapes
The choice of a place for planting seedlings is based on the heat and light-loving nature of this plant. It is better to plant grapes on the south side of the plot; the east or west side will also suit.
To protect the plant from extreme cold, you should not plant it in lowlands or at the bottom of ravines - this is where the air temperature drops the most. It is better to choose the southern slopes, which could reliably protect the plant from the cold wind and high humidity.Tip! If possible, it is better to plant grape seedlings near the walls of the house or outbuildings.
At the same time choose for planting the west or south-west side. Throughout the day, the building will heat up in the sun, and in the cool evening and at night it will give away the accumulated heat to the vine.
Vineyards like soil nutritious, friable. Most suitable for planting seedlings black soil, but, in principle, if you well fertilize the pit, you can plant grapes in any soil. The only thing that should be taken into account when choosing a landing site: sandy soil freezes over in winter and dries faster in summer. In the sand you need to make an earthen lock at the bottom of the pit, which will prevent leakage of water and nutrients. And yet, such vineyards harbor more for the winter and plant young plants somewhat deeper.
How to choose and prepare grapes for autumn planting
Proper cultivation of grapes begins with the selection of a healthy and strong seedling.
A good autumn seedling must meet the following criteria:
- have a brown trunk, up to 50 cm long;
- have one or more green shoots of any length;
- the root system must be well developed, consist of upper and lower nodes of the roots;
- the roots themselves reach a length of about 15 cm;
- on the cut, the root must be “alive”, white and wet;
- a good quality seedling is packed in clay protection - wet clay covers the roots of the grapes;
- seedlings should not be in the sun;
- leaves and young shoots have a rich green color (the paleness of the shade indicates that the plant is a greenhouse that has not been hardened).
When grape seedlings are purchased, they should be planted as soon as possible. Pre-hold preparation of planting material for grapes, it is as follows:
- First, grapes saplings are placed in cold water and soaked for 12-24 hours. Growth stimulants can be added to water, but many experts claim that this will adversely affect the development of the vine in the future.
- Now you need to remove the seedling from the water and inspect it. Cut the green appendix with sharp scissors, leaving 3-4 eyes.
- The upper roots are cut off completely, and located in the lower node - only slightly shortened to stimulate growth (pruned by 1-2 cm).
- To protect the grapes from fungal infections, the plant is treated with any fungicidal agent suitable for vineyards (for example, "Dnok").
Now the sapling is ready for planting before winter.
Soil preparation and planting grapes
In order for the capricious plant not to be frozen out in the cold winter, it is necessary to plant the grapes deep enough. The average size of the pit for planting seedlings is 80x80x80 cm, it is possible to reduce the diameter of the pit, but its depth should remain at the level of 0.8-1 meters.
Tip! It is recommended to dig holes for grapes in the same season - in this case, in the fall or at the end of the summer.
The distance between adjacent vines should be at least a meter, but if there is such an opportunity, it is better to increase the intervals to two meters. So, on the chosen place they dig a hole of the specified size and perform the following actions:
- 5-10 cm of crushed stone, pebbles or broken bricks are poured to the very bottom - this is the drainage layer. Drainage is necessary in order to protect the roots from high humidity.
- A pipe is installed in the drainage, the end of which will rise above the ground level when the hole is buried. The pipe is placed on the side, and it is needed in order to feed the grapes directly to the roots at any time of the year.
- The next layer is nutritious soil or black soil. The thickness of such a pillow is about 25-30 cm. Humus or compost is suitable as a nutrient layer: about eight buckets of fertilizer are poured into each pit.
- Mineral fertilizers are sprinkled on top: 0.3 kg of superphosphate and potash fertilizer, three liter jars of wood ash. It is necessary to mix the fertilizer with the soil, going 10-15 cm deep.
- The nutrient layer is closed with a thin layer of chernozem, so that the roots of the grapes do not burn from direct contact with fertilizers - 5 cm is enough.
- In the remaining 50 cm pit make a small bump of soil. Grapes are planted on it and the roots are gently straightened, positioning them along the cone.
- The pit is gradually covered with earth to the point of growth on the seedling. Lightly tamp the soil around the grapes. At this landing can be considered over.
- Immediately after planting, the grapes need to be watered, consuming 20-30 liters per bush. When the topsoil dries, it must be loosened.
Important! Before the onset of frost you need to water the sapling, at least twice. It is possible to use a drainage pipe for these purposes, then it is not necessary to loosen the ground.
Planting of grapes in the autumn is completed, now the most important thing is to prepare seedlings for wintering. In addition to irrigation, the grapes at this stage does not require any care, only with the onset of these frosts seedlings should be covered.
In warm regions, a rather simple earthen mound above the grapes, its height is about 30-50 cm. In more severe climates, the grapes are warmed more carefully, wrapping the shoots with plastic wrap, folding them into earthen tunnels, covering with spruce leaves or sawdust.
In any case, do not rush to the shelter, because it can harm the grapes. If the temperature is above zero, the seedlings can melt, in addition, they are threatened by insects and rodents in the ground. Experts advise to cover the vine only after the first frost, so that the plants undergo some hardening.
Everyone decides for himself: to plant grapes in spring or autumn. This article lists all the advantages of an autumn planting. To better understand all the nuances of this event, you can watch the video: